a theoretical approach that includes one or more theories that share similar philosophical assumptions
System (Level of Analysis)
a level of analysis that focuses on the analysis of the state system, like a democracy.
State (Level of Analysis)
a level of analysis that focuses on the analysis of the foreign policy behavior of states in terms of state characteristics; nations, countries, etc.
Substate (Level of Analysis)
a level of analysis that focuses on the analysis sub-national, regional locations in terms of characteristics and behaviors
Individual (Level of Analysis)
a level of analysis that focuses on the analysis of group and organizational events in terms of a single person's traits or behaviors.
generalized explanation for a set of essentially similar phenomena; specific statements about how international politics work
a theory of the international system, which claims that the system is anarchic, states are its primary actors, states are unitary actors, and states are rational actors.
A government official in the medieval city-state of Florence who wrote about the laws of politics for the wise statesman, focusing on how the state could defend itself from domestic and foreign enemies
Author of the influential work Leviathan in which he argued that government had to be autocratic in order to prevent a slide back into anarchy.
ruling or dominant in a political or social context; ex: Holy Roman Empire
forming a single or uniform entity.
a decision-making process that is based on making choices that result in the optimal level of benefit or utility for an individual.
A foreign policy goal that is objectively valuable for the overall well-being of the state. The concept is important in realist theory and in foreign policy discussions, but some dispute that there is any single national interest.
discourage (someone) from doing something by instilling doubt or fear of the consequences; prevent from occurring
The difficult choice faced by states in anarchy between arming, which risks provoking a response from others, and not arming, which risks remaining vulnerable
the study of mathematical models of strategic interactions among rational agents.
A game theory scenario in which noncooperation is the rational strategy, but leads to both players being worse off than if they had cooperated
a statement that is seemingly contradictory or opposed to common sense and yet is perhaps true
the quality or fact of being greater in number, quantity, or importance.
commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted self-governing state, group, or individual.
lacking a moral sense; unconcerned with the rightness or wrongness of something.
disinterested and selfless concern for the well-being of others.
an expert in a particular subject or field who is frequently called upon to give their opinions to the public.
Latin phrase meaning the existing state of affairs, particularly with regard to social, political, religious, or military issues.
a detailed analysis and assessment of something, especially a literary, philosophical, or political theory.
political and moral philosophy based on the rights of the individual, liberty, consent of the governed, and equality before the law; believe individuals are rational and can understand their interests; more diverse than realism
make (something bad) less severe, serious, or painful.
argued that free citizens could live peacefully without an authoritarian ruler; argued that individuals could freely join together to form governments that would protect them from anarchy without resorting to authoritarianism
the enforcement or advocacy of strict obedience to authority at the expense of personal freedom.
rights that are guaranteed; the enjoyment of life, liberty, the pursuit of happiness, and the acquiring and possessing of property.
negative; tending to see the worst aspect of things or believe that the worst will happen.
occurring or existing only if (certain circumstances) are the case; dependent on; a group of people sharing a common feature, forming part of a larger group.
obtain or bring about by discussion.
severe or bare in appearance or outline.
a theory that discards focus on the state; Focusing on multiple actors leads to a view of politics that is complex, multifaceted, and characterized by collaboration; Mostly focused on the sub-state level
Systemic-level counterpoint to realism; Shares many realist assumptions; Rethinks implications of anarchy on state behavior; thinks that international organizations are crucial
a previous statement or proposition from which another is inferred or follows as a conclusion.
the strategy of matching the other player’s previous move
a thing that motivates or encourages someone to do something.
an established law or practice.
a formally concluded and ratified agreement between states.
Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the USA, and the UK.
the process of establishing the truth, accuracy, or validity of something.
relating to a system of government in which state officials take most of the important decisions rather than elected representatives.
capable of working successfully; feasible.
Complex Interdependence Theory
Substate, but not exclusively; focuses on individuals, firms, nongovernmental organizations, and organizations within governments as key actors; States are not the only important actors. Actors have diverse interests in international politics. Much of international relations has little to do with military security
a serious and immediate danger.
divide or cause to divide into two sharply contrasting groups or sets of opinions or beliefs.
the profession, activity, or skill of managing international relations, typically by a country's representatives abroad.
withdraw from commercial or social relations with (a country, organization, or person) as a punishment or protest.
a subtle difference in or shade of meaning, expression, or sound.