ISU PSY 350 Exam #3

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What do all sexual disorders have in common--this something may be regarded as the defining characteristic of sexual disorder?
Unable to participate in the social practice of "making love"
What are "sexual dysfunctions?" (Distinguished from "sexual disorder")
Disabilities having to do with performance of the sexual act or satisfactions derived from it. To qualify as a dysfunction it must be (chronic vs occasional) (could be global or specific)
What are the varieties of sexual dysfunctions that were mentioned in class
Disorders of desire, disorders or excitement, disorders of orgasm, sexual pain disorder
Disorders of Desire
Male hypoactive sexual desire, female sexual interest/arousal disorders
disorder of excitement
male erectile disorder
Disorders of Orgasm
early ejaculation, delayed ejaculation, female orgasmic disorder - difficulty achieving orgasm
Sexual Pain Disorder
Sex is physically painful
What psychological causes of sexual dysfunction were mentioned in class?
1. Negative emotional state: anger, anxiety 2. Negative sexual experiences: rape, incest; 3. Negative views of sex; taught it was dirty, sinful 4. Dysfunctional cognitions: maladaptive thoughts during sexual encounters
Sexual misunderstanding - what is the common difference between men & women in the significance they attach to the act of sexual intercourse? How can this difference lead to problems in their relationship?
Female: thinks he doesn't care about her anymore, just wants her body. She doesn't think sex is a way to make them become closer.
thinks she is unloving, asexual, and manipulative. Sec is a way to express closeness but if there is anger in the relationship, sex is a way to restore the closeness
Issues because they both have views that are different but not true. If they are not close, she will not initiate sex but he will and that will make her think that he just wants her body and doesn't want to work out the issues. She will try other bids to try to become close, like talking, and he thinks that she is turned down by him.
What is a paraphilia?
Persistent sexual behavior patterns in which unusual objects or situations are required for sexual satisfaction. 1. Not a choice, 2. An addiction 3. Doesn't necessarily mean person must change
sexual attraction to inanimate objects or non-erotic body parts
Turned on by dressing up in the opposite gender clothing
compulsive need to expose one's body, particularly the genitals, to an unsuspecting stranger
abnormal sexual desire in adults for children
Turned on by inflicting pain onto someone else
Turned on by receiving pain
Can classical conditioning theory explain paraphilia completely? Partially? At all?
It can explain why they develop these paraphilias but doesn't explain why there is little to no interest in sexual Intercourse, why addiction, and why worse after a blow to self-esteem
How does John Money, in his famous "Lovemap Theory", explain paraphilia?
1. A person's sexual blueprint (preferred sexual scenario). Captures what is most erotically charged for person.
2. Childhood indoctrination of later paraphile: love bs lust (taught sin is sinful and dirty)
3. Paraphilia as "turning tragedy into triumph" tragedy us loss of possibility of loving sexual Intercourse. Triumph is "rescue of lust from total wreckage and obliteration and it's attachment to a reigned love map." Object choice determined by chance childhood encounters and/or personal attitudes toward self and/or others
4. Paraphilic act and act of "defiant self-assertion" (refuse to renounce my sexuality, will preserve sexuality even if I have to attach it to something else
Bergner's Amendment to Money's theory of paraphilia
Child is degraded. Being degraded creates need for recovery. Paraphilic ritual = enactment of a preferred scenario that represents attempted recovery from degradation. Why are urges so powerful? (Normal sexual drive + need to recover from degradation = powerful "sexual cocktail.") however, rituals fail because in most cases it isn't real affirmation and recovery, or when person self-affirms, he or she simultaneously violated own anti-sexual beliefs, and degrades self...thus creating a need to repeat and setting up an addictive cycle.
What 4 criteria are used to determine the severity of an individual's substance use disorder?
1. loss of control: unsuccessful efforts to cut down use
2. Impairment in social and/or work functioning
3. Tolerance effects: need more and more of substance to achieve desired effect
4. Withdrawal reactions: hangover, sweating, confusion, anxiety
What general theory was advocated in lecture as to the nature of the inherited factor in alcoholism?
Nature of possible genetic factor: an individual difference in drug responsiveness. Possibly related to pleased derived from alcohol. Concordance rates: population baseline 13.2%. Fraternal twins: 38%. Identical twins: 54%
What effects of alcohol were mentioned in class that make it an attractive drug for most people, but in the bargain also make it attractive for some people to abuse?
Pleasure, tension/anxiety reduction, disinhibition, relieves withdrawal symptoms, removes "conditioned cravings", replaces depleted endorphins
What is the "endorphins compensation hypothesis?"
When we are depressed the endorphins are depleted. When this happens, they put something in their body (alcohol), this is replacing the depleted endorphins so they feel good again. "Self-medicating"
What was the primary theory of why Jonathan B drank?
History: as a child he was overprotected, treated as fragile and sickly, secluded from other children
Resulting self concept: inadequate, incompetent (except music), not a man, helpless
When he leaves parental home; high anxiety due to sense that "I'm way over my head; I can't handle independent living."
Result: drinks to reduce anxiety
What, if any, role might Jonathan's wife have played in his drinking?
She is an enabler. She covers him, therefore he never has to face the consequences of his alcoholism.
What are the primary characteristics of narcissistic personality and disorder?
1. Exaggerated sense of personal specialness, importance? And being set apart from and above others
2. Sense of entitlement to special treatment
3. Ignorance of and disregard for other's rights and feelings
4. Extreme preoccupation with receiving affirmation from others
5. Don't let others get too close; romantic relationships = love them and leave them
What is Freud's definition of the term "narcissism?"
The inability to cathect (be invested in) other except insofar as they gratify themself in some way. (Inability to care for someone except as far as they can give them.) 1. Narcissism the opposite of love, which in all its forms (romantic, parental, etc) has the essential feature that one is invested in the well-being of the other for other's own sake.
What is Kernberg's explanation for why the narcissist is so addicted to the attention, praise and admiration of other persons?
Because esteem is a need and a narcissist has low self-esteem
Kernberg's explanation for why narcissists are unable to love other persons?
Being so desperate to get needs for affirmation met by other precludes being invested in others for their own sake
Kernberg's explanation for the "love em and leave em" pattern characteristic of narcissists
Narcissist no longer interested in the other once "tribute has been exacted." They got what they wanted, why stick around. May also think "when they really get to know me, they'll learn the deeper truth and stop admiring me and reject me and I couldn't stand that.
What is antisocial personality disorder?
When an individual has impulsivity, lack of conscience, engages in inadequately socially motivated behaviors, emotional poverty
How does Shapiro in his "short circuit theory" explain why the impulsive psychopath behaves as he or she does?
When he or she gets an antisocial (ID) impulse, they lack the resistors (relationships, moral values) (ego and superego) to resist such an impulse.
How does Bergner's theory explain why the impulse psychopath behaves as s/he does?
Psychopaths not "short-circuiting" but given the world as they have found it and some see it, they have reasons to be anti-social, and lack reasons to restrain selves. If parts of their world are different they can be pro social and non-impulsive in these parts.
What are the 4 phases of human sexual response and which phases does sexual dysfunction affect?
Desire phase: the phase of the sexual response cycle consisting of an urge to have sex, sexual fantasies and sexual attraction
Excitement phase: the phase of the sexual response cycle marked by changes in the pelvic region, general physical arousal, and increases in heart rate, muscle tension, blood pressure and rate of breathing
Orgasm phase: the phase of the sexual response cycle during which a person's sexual pleasure peaks and sexual tension is released as muscles in the pelvic region contract rhythmically
Resolution: consist simply of the relaxation and reduction in arousal that follow orgasm
Sexual dysfunction can occur in the first three phases
Disorder of desire that affects men
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder: a male dysfunction marked by a persistent reduction or lack of interest in sex and hence a low level of sexual activity
female sexual interest/arousal disorder
a female dysfunction marked by a persistent reduction or lack of interest in sex and low sexual activity, as well as, in some cases, limited excitement and few sexual sensations during sexual activity
What hormones may affect sexual desire?
In men, abnormally low levels of testosterone or high levels of the hormones estrogen and prolactin. In women, low levels of estrogen.
What medication/drugs affect sexual desire? How do they affect it?
Certain pain medications, psychotropic drugs, as illegal drugs such as cocaine, marijuana, amphetamines and heroin. These drugs lower sex drive
What sociocultural factors can lead to desire and erectile disorder?
If wife provides too little physical stimulation for her aging husband, who, because of normal aging changes, now requires more intense, direct and lengthy physical stimulation of the penis in order to have an erection. Second a couple believes that only intercourse can give the wife an orgasm
What physiological response is caused by medications (e.g. Viagra) for erectile dysfunction?
Increases blood flow to the penis within one hour of ingestion; the increased blood flow enables the user to attain erection during sexual activity
What condition are therapists paying more attention to that is not listed in DSM-5?
paraphilia in which sexual arousal is derived from observing unsuspecting individuals undressing or naked
Compulsion to achieve sexual arousal by touching or rubbing against a nonconsenting person in public situations
Because definitions of paraphilias are heavily influenced by societal norms, what do some clinicians believe about how paraphilias should be viewed?
Some clinicians argue that except when people are hurt by them, many paraphiliac disorders should not be considered disorders at all. Especially in light of the self-revulsion people feel towards themselves when they believe they have such disorder, so we need to be careful about applying these labels to people
What are the behavioral treatments for fetishism?
Aversion therapy, covert sensitization, masturbatory satiation, Orgasmic reorientation
How prevalent is premature ejaculation?
As many as 30% of men struggle with it worldwide
What reaction to being transgender becomes a disorder?
Gender dysphoria
What are some explanations for the origins of gender dysphoria?
Biological explanations from birth and the fact that transgender individuals receive so much hate and persecution from society
What are some reasons for and against gender reassignment surgery as an option for transgender individuals?
For - people experience improvements in self-satisfaction and interpersonal interactions? And show improvements in sexual functioning
Against - in the long term, some people experience gender dysphoria, higher rate of psychological disorders and suicide greater than the general population
What are the 4 categories into which the different substances that people misuse fall?
Depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, cannabis
What have statistics shown about the change in frequency of binge-drinking? Who is more likely to do it?
24% of people in the US over the age of 11 binge-drink each month. Men and college students are more likely to binge drink
What are the most widely used depressant substances?
Alcohol, sedative-hypnotic drugs, opioids
How does alcohol affect the neurotransmitter GABA?
It binds the receptors on certain neurons and helps GABA shut down the neurons, helping to relax the drinker
Why do women become more intoxicated than men on equal does of alcohol?
Women have less of the stomach enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase, which breaks down alcohol in the stomach before it enters the blood
are rates of "sobering up" the same in all individuals
No because they vary because people's lovers work at different speeds to metabolize alcohol
What are the only things that can help a person sober up?
time and metabolism
According to the "Psych Watch" section, which students are more likely to binge drink?
College students who are athletes, lived in fraternities/sororities, pursues a party-centered lifestyle, and engaged in high risk behaviors such as substance misuse or having multiple sex partners
What ethnic group tends to display the highest rates of alcohol abuse and dependence?
Native Americans
What do MRI scans reveal about the brains of chronic drinkers?
Damage to brain - impairments in short term memory, speed of thinking, attention skills & balance
Define "tolerance" as this term is used in connection with substance abuse
The adjustment that the brain and the body make to the regular use of certain drugs so that even larger doses are needed to achieve earlier effects - falls under substance term-54dependence (addiction)
What are the withdrawal symptoms? (AKA a hangover)
After heavy drinking, a person experiences tiredness, moodiness, fever, shakes, insomnia, hallucinations, anger, cravings, irritability, crawling skin
What is cirrhosis?
a chronic disease of the liver marked by degeneration of cells, inflammation, and fibrous thickening of tissue. It is typically a result of alcoholism or hepatitis. Alcohol overworks the liver, causing the scarring.
What are the nutritional problems that excessive drinking may cause?
Alcohol makes you feel full and lowers desire to eat, can become malnourished, weak and prone to disease
What are problems associated with fetal alcohol syndrome?
Mental retardation, hyperactivity, Deformities, heart defects and slow growth
According to sociocultural view, what factors make people more likely to develop patterns of substance abuse or dependence?
When people live under stressful socioeconomic conditions. Higher rates of alcoholism are seen in regions with higher unemployment, lower socioeconomic classes, and in families where substance use is accepted or valued
According to behaviorists, what process plays a key role in substance abuse disorders?
operant conditioning
What is involved in psychodynamic therapy for substance abuse? Has it been found to be effective?
First guide to uncover and work through the underlying needs and conflicts that they believe lead to the disorder. Then they try to help change their substance-related styles of living.
Not found to be effective. It is more helpful when combined with another approach
How does aversion therapy work to combat drug addiction?
When people take a drug and drink alcohol, they will have nausea, vomiting, blushing, faster heart rate, dizziness, and fainting. The unpleasant experience with nausea should pair alcohol with the unpleasant experience
What is involved in relapse prevention training?
A cognitive-behavioral approach to treating alcohol abuse and dependence in which clients are taught to keep track of their drinking behavior, apply coping strategies in situations that typically trigger excessive drinking and plan ahead for risky situations situations and reactions
How do self-help treatment programs (e.g., Alcoholics Anonymous) offer support to people with alcoholism?
It offers peer support along with moral and spiritual guidelines to help people overcome alcoholism
What does research indicate about teaching controlled drinking versus complete abstinence in the treatment of alcoholism?
-both May be useful treatment goals, depending on the nature of the particular drinking problem.
-abstinence may be more appropriate for those who have a long-standing dependence on alcohol
-controlled drinking can be helpful to young drinkers who's pattern does not include physical dependence
paranoid personality disorder
"People with paranoid personality disorder deeply distrust other people and are suspicious of others' motives."
schizoid personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by persistent avoidance of social relationships and little expression of emotion
borderline personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by lack of stability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotion; impulsivity; angry outbursts; intense fear of abandonment; recurring suicidal gestures
histrionic personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by excessive emotionality and preoccupation with being the center of attention; emotional shallowness; overly dramatic behavior
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by preoccupation with orderliness, perfection, and control
What adolescent behaviors are usually linked with persons later developing antisocial personality disorder?
People who lie, violate rules & other people's rights (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, lack of foresight and judgment and fail to learn from experience)
What childhood disorders often lead to the development of antisocial personality disorder?
Children with conduct disorder and an accompanying attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder may have a high risk of developing antisocial personality disorder
What are some explanations regarding why people with antisocial personality disorder are more prone to substance abuse?
a deep seeded need to take risk
What neurotransmitter abnormality May be a causal factor in antisocial personality disorder?
Low serotonin
Why are treatments for antisocial personality disorder ineffective?
Individuals lack of conscience, desire to change, or respect for therapy
What are some common occurrences in the childhoods of people with borderline personality disorder?
Neglected or rejected by their parents, verbally abused them, physical and/or sexual abuse behaved inappropriately. Many parent substitutes (divorce, death)
What is involved in the bio social theory of borderline personality disorder?
Disorder results from a combo of internal forces (difficulty identifying and controlling one's emotions, social deficits, abnormal neurotransmitter reactions) and external forces (environment in which a child's emotions are punished ignored, trivialized or disregarded)
People with which personality disorder are most likely to seek treatment on their own?
Why are persons with narcissistic personality disorder difficult to treat?
Clients are unable to acknowledge weakness, to appreciate the effort of their behavior on others, or incorporate feedback from others
What is a key task in therapy for people with dependent personality disorder?
to change the patient's self-concept to one that seeks greater independence and accepts responsibility for their own choices.
What kind of research is being neglected in the area of personality disorders?
the lack of multicultural research.
What is the "Big Five"?
extraversion, agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism.
How can the "Big Five" be used as an alternative to the categorical approach to diagnosing personality disorders?
by describing all people with personality disorders as being high, low, or in between on the five super traits.