BIOL: chapter 1 (the study of life)

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derived from Latin and means “to know”
The word Science
Two main types of scientific inquiry:
discovery science and hypothesis-based science
discovery science and hypothesis-based science
Also known as qualitative science and quantitative science
logic used in descriptive science
Inductive reasoning
logic used in hypothesis-based science
Deductive reasoning
observations to arrive at general conclusion
Inductive reasoning
all living organisms are composed of cells -- all life observed exhibits cellular organization
Inductive reasoning
general principles to predict specific result
Deductive reasoning
All dogs are mammals. All mammals have kidneys. Therefore all dogs have kidneys.
Deductive reasoning
recorded observations or items of information
descriptions rather than measurements (appearance, behavior, etc...)
recorded measurements, which are sometimes organized into tables and graphs
A hypothesis must be
Experiments must have
“pure” science seeks to expand knowledge regardless of the short-term application
Basic science
goal of technology is to
apply scientific knowledge for some specific purpose
Biology is marked by “_______,” while technology is marked by “_______”
scientific law describes
a correlation between measured variables. Sometimes expressed as a mathematical equation.
scientific theory offers an explanation of
natural phenomena. The theory of evolution through natural selection. The theory of relativity. Germ theory.
Reviewed by experts in the same research area, who judge whether or not the work is original, significant, logical, and thorough.
Primary or peer-reviewed literature
Newspapers, books, review articles
Secondary literature
Properties of Life
1. Order 2. Response to environment 3. Reproduction 4. Regulation/homeostasis 5. Energy Processing 6. Evolutionary Adaption
Organisms interact with their environments, exchanging matter and energy
two major processes:
– Cycling of nutrients – Energy transfer and transformation: flow of energy from sunlight to producers to consumers
Organisms living on Earth are modified descendents of
common ancestors
Fossils and other evidence document the evolution of life on Earth over
billions of years
Natural selection is evident in adaptations of
organisms to their environment
Bat wings are an example of
Bacteria and Archaea are ______; plants, animals, fungi, and all other forms of life are _______
Domain Bacteria and domain Archaea
comprise the prokaryotes
Domain Eukarya includes three multicellular kingdoms:
Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
Other eukaryots were formerly grouped into a kingdom called Protista –
now grouped into many separate kingdoms