BIO 121 Chapter 9

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Metabolic pathways
- harvest energy from high-energy molecules such as glucose - cellular respiration is critical and often interacts with other pathways - comprises thousands of different chemical reactions that may be organized and regulated
Cellular respiration
- occurs through a long series of carefully controlled redox reactions (conserves energy/prevents mini explosions) that use the electrons of high-energy molecules to make ATP - oxygen atoms are reduced to form water - glucose + 6 oxygen gas + ADP + inorganic Phosphate —> 6 carbon dioxide + 6 water + ATP - consists of 4 processes: glycolysis, pyruvate processing, Krebs cycle, and electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation
Glycolysis overview
- a series of 10 reactions that occurs in the cytosol of eukaryotes and prokaryotes - net yield of 2 NADH, 2 ATP, 2 H2O, and 2 pyruvate for every glucose - glucose + 2 ATP —> 2 (NADH + H+) + 4 ATP + 2 Pyruvate + 2 H2O
Phosphofructokinase (PFK)
- uses ATP to phosphorylate the end of fructose-6-phosphate to form fructose-1,6-bisphosphate - increases potential energy
Pyruvate processing
- occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria or the cytosol of prokaryotes - for eukaryotes, pyruvate is transported from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix - catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase, an enormous enzyme complex which is regulated by a negative feedback loop involving ATP - 2 pyruvate + 2 NAD+ + 2 Coenzyme A —> 2 acetyl CoA + 2 CO2 + 2 NADH - Decarboxylation: the carboxyl group on pyruvate (the 3rd carbon) is released as CO2
- enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to another molecule
- enzyme that removes phosphate group
Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle)
- also occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria or the cytosol of prokaryotes - 2 turns of the citric acid cycle for each glucose molecule - Potential energy is released to reduce coenzymes - The acetyl group (2C) from acetyl CoA is transferred to oxaloacetate (4C) to form citrate (6C); oxaloacetate is regenerated at the end (cycle) - 8 reactions - 2 acetyl coA —> 6 NADH + 6H+ + 2 FADH2 + 2 ATP + 4CO2
Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation
- electron transport chain consisting of 4 main protein complexes establishes a proton gradient that is used to produce ATP - uses NADH and FADH2 produced in previous steps to generate the protein gradient, which contributes to the phosphorylation of ADP - uses O2 (oxygen gas) and produces ATP and water - occurs across the inner membrane of the mitochondria or the plasma membrane + the periplasm of prokaryotes - a small amount of energy is released in each reaction; each successive bond/molecule in the ETC holds less potential energy ; after the ETC, most of the chemical energy from glucose is accounted for by a proton electrochemical gradient - primary goal: make ATP - secondary goal: regenerate NAD+
- space between the cell wall and the plasma membrane
2 fundamental requirements of cellular life
- energy to generate ATP - a source of carbon to use as raw materials for synthesizing macromolecules
Catabolic pathways
- involve the breakdown of molecules - often harvest stored chemical energy to produce ATP
Anabolic pathways
- result in the synthesis of larger molecules from smaller components - often use energy in the form of ATP
- maintenance of a stable internal environment under different environmental conditions
Energy investment phase (glycolysis)
- reactions 1 through 5 - uses 2 ATP molecules - regulation of the metabolic pathway occurs during this phase (reaction 3, regulation of phosphofructokinase)
Energy payoff phase (glycolysis)
- reactions 6 through 10 - NADH is made and ATP is produced by substrate-level phosphorylation
Substrate-level phosphorylation
- 1 way to make ATP - the ONLY way to produce ATP through glycolysis - enzyme facilitates the transfer of a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP
Glycolysis regulation
- regulated by feedback inhibition - high levels of ATP inhibit the third enzyme/step of glycolysis (phosphofructokinase), which have two binding sites for ATP - when ATP binds to the regulatory site of phosphofructokinase, the reaction rate slows dramatically
Regulation of pyruvate processing
- when products of glycolysis and pyruvate processing are abundant, pyruvate dehydrogenase is phosphorylated, inducing a conformational change in the enzyme and inhibiting its activity
Citric acid cycle regulation
- can be turned off at multiple points via several different mechanisms of feedback inhibitions - regulated at steps 1, 3, and 4 by ATP and NADH - reaction rates are high when ATP and NADH are scarce; rates are low when ATP or NAHD are abundant
Oxidation of NADH and FADH2
- oxidized by membrane complexes - NADH is oxidized when combined with the inner membrane of the mitochondria; in prokaryotes, it is oxidized by the plasma membrane - molecules in the inner mitochondrial membrane can cycle between oxidized and reduced states
ETC Protein complexes
- most are composed of easily-oxidized proteins - some accept only electrons, while others accept electrons plus protons; each complex has differing redox potentials
Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q, or simply Q)
- lipid-soluble, non-protein - critical component of the ETC - reduced by complexes I and II; moves throughout the hydrophobic interior of the electron transport chain membrane, where it is oxidized by complex III
Redox potential
- ability to accept electrons - High positive value = more potential to GAIN electrons - strong negative value = more potential to LOSE electrons
Complex I (ETC)
- NADH dehydrogenase oxidizes NADH - transfers 2 electrons through proteins containing FMN prosthetic groups and Fe-S cofactors to reduce an oxidized form of Q - 4 protons pumped out of the matrix to the intermembrane space per pair of electrons
Complex II (ETC)
- Succinate dehydrogenase oxidizes FADH2 - transfers the two electrons through proteins containing Fe-S cofactors to reduce an oxidized form of Q - this complex is also used in step 6 of the Krebs cycle - does not produce sufficient energy to pump protons
Complex III
- cytochrome c reductase oxidizes Q - transfers 1 electron at a time through proteins containing heme prosthetic groups and Fe-S cofactors to reduce an oxidized form of cytochrome c - 4 protons for each pair of electrons is transported from the matrix to the intermembrane space
Cyt c (cyctochrome c)
- reduced by accepting a single electron from complex III - moves along the surface of the ETC membrane, where it is oxidized by complex IV
Complex IV
- cytochrome c oxidase oxidizes cyt c - transfers each electron through proteins containing heme prosthetic groups to reduce oxygen gas, which picks up two protons from the matrix to produce water - 2 additional protons are pumped out of the matrix of the intermembrane space
ATP Synthesis (ETC)
- fueled by chemiosmosis; uses the established proton gradient to create ATP using ATP synthase
ATP synthase
- located in the inner mitochondrial membrane in eukaryotes, or the plasma membrane in prokaryotes - creates energy from the proton motive force of the proton gradient to chemical bond energy in ATP - is a rotary machine that makes ATP as it spins - consists of 2 components—an ATPase "knob"/F1 unit, and a membrane-bound, proton-transporting base/F0 unit, which is a rotor that turns as protons flow through it—that are connected by a shaft and held in place by a stator - the spinning F0 unit changes the conformation of the F1 unit so that it phosphorylates ADP to form ATP
Oxidative phosphorylation
- oxidative = FADH2 and NADH are being oxidized - phosphorylation = ADP —> ATP - different from substrate-level phosphorylation because instead of potential energy activating the enzyme, kinetic energy activates the enzyme (movement of protons down their gradient) - yields ~24-28 ATP per glucose
Chemiosmotic hypothesis
- the linkage between electron transport and ATP production by ATP synthase is indirect - the synthesis of ATP only requires a proton gradient
Aerobic respiration
- O2, which has a very high redox potential, is the final electron acceptor - most efficient—CO2 (single-carbon compound) is the byproduct
Anaerobic respiration
- some other compound is the final electron acceptor - has a lower energy yield compared to aerobic respiration because oxygen is super electronegative and has a high redox potential - less efficient—some other carbon-containing (organic) molecule is the byproduct (ethanol, lactic acid, etc) - seen in some prokaryotes
- a metabolic pathway that regenerates NAD+ from NADH - the electron in NADH is transferred to pyruvate - serves as an emergency backup for aerobic respiration when there is not enough oxygen - incomplete oxidation of glucose; much less efficient than cellular respiration - produces 2 ATP per glucose, compared with about 29 ATP per glucose in cellular respiration
Lactic acid fermentation
- fermentation in which the product is lactic acid - occurs in humans in the absence of oxygen - muscle cramps = the accumulation of lactic acid - in humans, lactic acid fermentation results in the production of yogurt, cheese, etc - produces only 2 ATP (by substrate-level phosphorylation)
Ethanol fermentation
- some yeast cells can perform alcohol fermentation - pyruvate is converted to acetaldehyde and CO2 - acetaldehyde accepts electrons from NADH - ethanol and NAD+ are produced
Faculative anaerobes
- organisms that can switch between fermentation and aerobic respiration - only use fermentation if an electron acceptor is not available - E.coli, yeast, etc
Glycolysis step 1
- hexokinase uses ATP to phosphorylate glucose, increasing its potential energy - forms glucose-6-phosphate and ADP
Glycolysis Step 2
- phosphoglucose isomerase converts glucose-6-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate (an isomer)
Glycolysis Step 3
- Phosphofructokinase uses ATP to phosphorylate the opposite end of fructose-6-phosphate, increasing its potential energy - forms fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
Glycolysis Step 4
- fructose-bis-phosphate aldolase cleaves fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into 2 different 3-carbon sugars (DAP and G3P)
Glycolysis Step 5
- triose phosphate isomerase converts dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DAP) to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) - reaction is fully reversible, but DAP-to-G3P reaction is favored because G3P can be immediately used as a substrate for step 6
Glycolysis Step 6
- glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) dehydrogenase catalyzes a 2-step reaction - first oxidizes G3P using the NAD+ coenzyme to produce NADH - Energy from this reaction is used to attach an inorganic phosphate to the oxidized product to form 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate
Glycolysis Step 7
- phosphoglycerate kinase transfers a phosphate from 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to ADP to make 3-phosphoglycerate and ATP (PRODUCES ATP—1 for each 3-carbon intermediate)
Glycolysis Step 8
- phosphoglycerate mutase rearranges the phosphate in 3-phosphoglycerate to form 2-phosphoglycerate
Glycolysis Step 9
- enolase removes a water molecule from 2-phosphoglycerate to form a C=C double bond and produce phosphoenolpyruvate
Glycolysis Step 10
- remaining phosphate groups are added to 2 ADP molecules to form 2 ATP and pyruvate - pyruvate kinase transfers a phosphate fro phosphoenolpyruvate to ADP to make pyruvate and ATP
Electron Transport Chain Theoretical Yield
- 1 NADH = 3 ATP - 1 FADH2 = 2 ATP (lower because complex II, where FADH2 is oxidized, has a lower redox potential than complex I, where NADH is oxidized)
ETC Actual Yield
- 1 NADH = ~2.25 ATP - 1 FADH2 = ~1.25 ATP