All organisms have the ability to grow and develop.
Organisms must maintain a steady state of internal condition despite varying conditions
The ability to reproduce more organisms of their own kind.
Response to Environment or Stimuli
Organisms have the ability to respond to their surroundings.
a process of an organism adjusting to better match its environment.
Reaction towards stimulus
Reaction away from stimulus
All organisms require energy for their cellular metabolic activities to occur.
producers who can make their own food through the energy from the sun
consumers who need to take in substances as food to be broken down into energy.
Organisms form highly organized and coordinated structures in order to function properly
The smallest functional unit of all living things.
Carries genetic materials. Without it, livings things would not be able to pass
an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
A Dutch spectacle-maker
Inventor of one-lense microscope
Discoverer of Telescope
Two-lense Microscope: a bi-convex objective and a bi-concave eyepiece.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Father of Microbiology
First to discover bacteria and protozoa
Discovered bacteria from the dental scrapings of his teeth
Discovered protozoa through a raindrop sample
what leeuwenhoek called protozoa and bacteria
Coined the term “cell”
piece of cork stripped from the trunk of the Cork Oak tree
san pinangalan ni hooke ung cell
hooke's book containing all of his observations through various lenses.
“My new bodies”
english title of hooke's book
“Every plant is made up of cells”
“Every animal is made up of cells”
Father of Modern Pathology
“omnis cellula e cellula”
“every cell stems from another cell.”
“Life came from life”
“Life came from the non-living”
All known living things are made up of cells.
The cell is a structural and functional unit of all living things.
All cells come from pre-existing cells by division.
Postulates of Cell Theory
All cells contain hereditary information which is passed from cell to cell during division.
All cells are basically the same in chemical composition.
All energy flow of life occurs within cells.
Additional Postulates of Cell Theory
Large, complex molecules play several critical roles in the body.
Its most important function is being the primary source of energy.
The basic building blocks for all cells and they play many important and varied roles.
Two types: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Also referred to as the “thread of
it was about 2 billion years ago when some large prokaryote managed to create a nucleus by folding its cell membrane in on itself and it may have appeared after prokaryotic cells joined together to form a bigger organism.
Found majority on eukaryotic cells and considered as the largest organelle, accounting for around 10% of the cell’s volume.
The process of selectively permeable nuclear envelope separates the contents of the nucleus from that of the cytoplasm. Sabi ni miss eto daw ung nakakafunction ung mga organelles on their own kasi may barrier sila na membrane so sabay-sabay sila.
Major site of synthesis in the cell
rough endoplasmic reticulum
takes proteins from the cytosol and continues its production in the golgi apparatus until completion.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
is important in lipid, phospholipid and steroid synthesis.
Modifies proteins and lipids which are obtained from the endoplasmic reticulum.
Powerhouse of the cell
It has inner and outer membrane with an intermembrane space in between
An acidic membrane-bound organelle that contain numerous hydrolytic enzymes which catalyze hydrolysis reactions
Surrounded by a membrane called tonoplast which encloses fluid containing inorganic materials like water and organic materials like nutrients and enzymes.
It acts as a storage for nutrients as well as waste materials to protect the cell from toxicity.
A membrane-bound organelle containing liquid or cytosol which is enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
A type of plastid that involved in photosynthesis in plants and algae
It contains high concentration of chlorophyll that traps sunlight
Non-membrane bound cell organelles
Organelles that are not fluid-filled and do not need to be separated from the rest of the cell in the same way as membrane-bound organelles.
Structure of cell which produces protein.
prokaryotes are about 60% rRNA and 40% protein, while the eukaryotes can be very evenly divided between the two.
percentage of rRNA and protien in prokaryotes
An organelle that helps cells divide or make copies of themselves.
A network of microscopic molecular filaments found in the cytoplasm of all nucleated eukaryotic cells.
made up of cells which share a similar structure and function.
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, and Nervous.
Animals are made up of four basic tissue types:
Closely packed sheets of cells covering surfaces and cavities of the body wall
It is made up of cells that suspended in an extracellular matrix
Muscle fibers contain actin and myosin proteins which allow them to contract
Found in blood vessel walls, digestive tract walls, uterus, urinary bladder and various other internal structures
Found in the walls of the heart
Striated but not voluntary
Individual fibers are bound by intercalated disks, allowing them to contract synchronously
Involved in the collection and transmitting of information through detecting stimuli—external & internal signals
Main functioning structure
Generate electrical signals, nerve impulses/action potentials, that allow neurons to transmit information quickly
Promote neuronal activity
dermal, vascular, and ground tissue.
Plants are made up of what tissue?
Covers and protects the plant and monitors exchange of gases and absorption of water in roots
Transports water, minerals, and sugars into different parts of the plant
Perform different functions depending on the type and position of the cells in the plant
Finger-like cytoplasmic extensions of the apical surface which increase surface area for absorption
Numerous and often regularly arranged and found in absorptive epithelia
Short hair-like structures
Core is composed of microtubules arranged in a specific manner and each cilium is connected to a basal body and extends from a free surface
Function: movement/motility, beats in coordinated rhythmical wave-like manner
Same axial structure with cilia but longer
Present in the tail of spermatozoa
Support the epithelium and functions as passive molecular sieve or ultrafilter
Present also in mitochondria that suggests active transport is occuring
Intercellular adhesion complexes in epithelia and endothelia that control paracellular permeability
two-layer of phospholipid oriented in opposite direction
phosphate group: head - _______: tails
It is bonded to a phosphate “head” group and two fatty-acid “tails”
phylic [water-loving] (Polar)
the phospate head is hydro___
phobic [water-hating] (non-polar)
the tail end of phospate is hydro_____
Since phospholipid molecule is comprised of two different ends it is called ___
it pertains to allowing only certain substances to pass through the phospholipid bilayer because of its hydrophobic middle portion
Alcohol and Phosphate
The head of a phopholipid bulayer is made of ____ and ______
The phospholipid tail are chains of
location and function
Proteins can further be classified based on _______ and _______
also known as intrinsic proteins that are embedded entirely in the lipid bilayer
they are attached to either inner or outer layer of the phospholipid bilayer.
a very narrow tube-shaped protein that help establish a tiny pore in the cell membrane
Transporter or Carrier Proteins.
They are embedded in the cell membrane to help transport too large molecules such as glucose and amino acids to go through ion channels across the membrane
they are are chemicals that catalyze and causes chemical reactions to occur.
receptor cite proteins
The purpose of these receptor sites is to help cells communicate with their external environment through the use of hormones,
neurotransmitters, and other signaling molecules
they are also known as cell identity markers. these are glycoproteins. Glyco means carbohydrates so these are proteins with carbohydrates
attached to them.
It helps the cell membrane maintain the appropriate level of fluidity by managing the space between phospholipids.
The Fluid Mosaic Model
The cell membrane is described as this because the structure
of the membrane is flexible and fluid rather than a rigid solid barrier.
Some of the membrane proteins have carbohydrate attached called _________________, help cells to recognize each other and certain
There are also carbohydrates attached to lipids called ______________
that are involve in cell to cell _________________.
glycolipids and glycoproteins
They are involved in cell to cell recognition
The most direct forms of membrane transport are
substances simply move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
It is a naturally-occurring phenomenon and does not require the cell to exert any of its
energy to accomplish the movement
the difference in concentration of a substance across a space, solutes are more concentrated in one region than in a neighboring region.
It happens when as the solute moves, the gradient disappears but the substances are still moving.
The greater the difference in concentration, the
faster the molecules will go down the concentration gradient, hence more rapid
Higher temperatures increase the energy and therefore the movement of the molecules, increasing the rate of diffusion. Lower temperatures decrease the energy of the molecules, thus decreasing the rate of diffusion.
Mass of Particles
Heavier molecules move more slowly; therefore, they diffuse more slowly. The reverse is true for lighter molecules.
The denser or viscous the medium is, the harder it is for the given particle to diffuse through it.
passive transport without the use of transport proteins.
passive transport with the help of membrane proteins
from area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
In passive transport, molecules move ____
The type of transport used to move oxygen and carbon dioxide across the cell membrane is
a special type of diffusion, wherein water molecules pass in a selectively permeable
The pressure that causes the water to diffused through selectively permeable membranes is called
a solution where the water movement is
balanced between the inside of the cell and the outside of the cell.
a solution where the solute concentration is higher outside the red blood cells than inside
the solute concentration is lower outside the red blood cell than inside.
also called the hydrostatic pressure is the resulting force of water against the cell wall. This prevents the further net intake of water.
happens when the cytoplasm has shrunk and pulled away from the cell wall.
In an ________, a cell uses transport protein to move a substance against its concentration gradient—from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration
if they transport a single type of molecule or ion
if they transport two molecules or ions in the same direction
if they transport two molecules or ions in the opposite directions
a difference in the electrical potential (voltage) across their cell membrane.
A sodium potassium pump is a type of _______
Na+ is the most plentiful positively charged ion outside the cell, while ____ is the most plentiful inside.
One of the most important pumps in animal cells is the
Na out, K in
sodium pottasium pump moves ___ out of the cellsm and ___ in
a small sac that can pinch off or fuse with a cell membrane.
in it, cell membrane engulfs fluids or large molecules to bring them into the cell.
phagocytosis (Gr. phagein -to eat, cyto -cell) -“cell eating”
It is the process by which large particles, such as cells or relatively large particles, are taken in by a cell
inocytosis (Gr. pinein -to drink, cyto -cell) ““cell drinking”
a process that takes in molecules, including
water, which the cell needs from the extracellular fluid
a form of endocytosis in which receptor
proteins on the cell surface are used to capture a specific target molecule.
Exocytosis (“exo” -outside)
a form of bulk transport in which materials are transported from the inside to the outside of the cell in membrane bound vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane
p53 (Tumor Suppressor Gene)
this gene is responsible in suppressing tumors
enzymes that combine phosphate groups to other molecules like sugars and proteins.
It serves an activating protein that bind to a
kinase to form Cdk complex.
are kinases which either activates or deactivates another protein through phosphorylating them. It gives the ‘stop’ and ‘go’ signal at the Gap 1 and
Gap 2 checkpoints.
The result of mitosis is two ___ daughter cells.
2n = 46 chromosomes
n = 23 chromosomes
These are cells that are like clay that is ready to be molded to get a specific shape.
cells that don’t stop dividing and growing even if there is already enough of them in an area. As a result, it would create a lump that could get bigger.
it is a progressive damage in nerve cells
the most widespread and known degenerative disease and is characterized by memory loss.
it is an inherited disorder characterized by neuronal dysfunction and degeneration in striatum and cerebral cortex.
It is also about cell deaths but targeting those neurons responsible for movements.
Meiosis produces _____ daughter cells that are distinct to each other and from the parent cell
The point at which paired chromosomes remain in contact
Gametogenesis (production of gametes)
a process where a diploid (2n) cell undergoes a meiotic cell division to become haploid sex cells.
the production of millions of spermatozoa (commonly known as sperms) each day through meiosis from primordial germ cells.
testis [seminiferous tubules]
the organ involved in spermatogenesis
the production of female gametes (ova) within ovaries (sometimes it happens in the oviduct)
it is the abnormality in the number of chromosomes; either there is too much or too few.
EXCESSIVE CHROMOSOMES (AUTOSOMES)
his means that there is an excessive copy of chromosome (normally it is a pair (2) but in these cases, there are 3 chromosomes)
commonly called as Down Syndrome. From the name itself, it implies that there is an excess
chromosome in chromosome 21. They have a total of 47 chromosomes instead of 46
NONDISJUNCTION (SEX CHROMOSOMES)
occurs when pairs of homologous
chromosomes or the sister chromatids fail to separate during anaphase I or anaphase
II (rare in mitosis)
has 47 chromosomes because there is a pair of
X chromosome instead of just 1. It is presented as XXY and usually happens to males.
has 47 chromosomes, just like Klinefelter, but this is because there is a pair of Y chromosome instead of just 1.
TRISOMY X (TRIPLE X Syndrome)
has 47 chromosomes and this time there are three X chromosome and no Y chromosome. This happens in female humans.
MONOSOMY X (TURNER’S SYNDROME)
has 45 chromosomes because there is no Y chromosome. They are genetically female, but they do not mature sexually during puberty.
- found in plants, animals, fungi, protists
- reproduce through mitosis
- linear DNA structure
- sexual reproduction
- Contains organelles enclosed in membranes (Golgi Body and endoplasmic reticulum)
- store their DNA as chromosomes within the nucleus
- found in bacteria
- reproduce through binary fission
- circular DNA structure
- rigid cell wall from glycoproteins (Murein)
- asexual reproduction
- Lack membrane-bound organelles
- Lack membrane-bound nucleus
- Nucleoid: cytoplasm area where majority of their DNA is in a chromosome-like
is the process of selectively permeable nuclear envelope separates the contents of the nucleus from that of the cytoplasm