Chapter 4 Bio Test Study Guide

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What did Hooke do for science

looked at cork, coined the term cell and is given credit for discover of cells around 1665

What did Leeuwenhoek do for science

made microscope 10x better, observed living organisms specifically unicellular organisms such as bacteria and protists around 1676

What did Schwann and Shleiden do for science

created cell theory

What was Leewenhoek previously


List 3 parts of cell theory

1)Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living organisms 2)All living things have at least one cell 3) Cells are made from existing cells

The _____ of a cell will determine its function


Prokaryotic v Eukaryotic similarities

have ribosomes, DNA, can be unicellular, can have cell walls, has cell membrane

Prokaryotic v Eukaryotic differences

Pro-no nucleus, no membrane bound organelles, only be unicellular, example is bacteria

Eu-membrane bound, could be part of multicellular organism, nucleus, an example is a protist and fungal cell

Animal v Plants similarities

nucleus, eukaryotic, have cell membrane, can’t be unicellular, membrane bound organelles

Animal v Plants differences

A-irregular shapes, CENTROSOMES, round

P-cell wall, CHLOROPLASTS, typically larger, geometric and rigid shape

What does it mean when plasma membrane is semi permeable

only allows certain substances to pass through; it regulates what exits/enters the cell

What is a phospholipid bilayer

2 layers of phospholipids (4 total)

Whis is having the tails hydrophobic and the heads hydrophilic important

the tails being hydrophobic creates a good barrier between the cell and uncontrolled waters and the heads being hydrophilic protects the tails and allows the cell to live in aqueous solution

What cholesterol’s function is in the plasma membrane

is a steroid (lipid) that keeps membrane at stable fluidity meaning membrane won’t freeze solid in cool temperatures, and it won’t melt in high temperatures

What does the Fluid Mosaic Model mean

organelles are constantly moving horizontally and aren't fixed in place

Difference between cytosol and cytoplasm

cytosol is the fluid surrounding all organelles, cytoplasm is the fluid plus all the organelles

What kinds of proteins are embedded in the plasma membrane and what are the different types are used for

Channel proteins-things can pass through Labels/receptors-cell recognition and communication

How many membranes does the nucleus contain and what’s its function

2 membranes(nuclear envelope), houses and protects DNA

What are nuclear pores and their function

openings in the membrane made of channel proteins located on the outside of the nucleus/nuclear envelope so things can come in and out of the nucleus such as ribosomes

Where’s the nucleolus and its function

inside the nucleus, dense part of the nucleus that makes ribosomes

What molecule is made in the mitochondria

ATP is made during cellular respiration in the mitochondria which is used for energy

How many membranes does a mitochondrion have

2 but 4 total phospholipids, inner membrane folds for more surface area to create more ATP at once (and Im assuming the outer membrane is for structure purposes)

Describe ribosomes and the two cell locations ribosomes can be found

build proteins, smallest organelle, not membrane bound, attached to rough ER or floating around cytosol

Describe the ER and the differences between the 2 parts of the ER

system of membrane folds, near nucleus and golgi, Rough-covered in ribosomes and lots of protein production happens there Smooth-makes lipids

What are the functions of the golgi apparatus and what other organelle does it create

similarly to ER it too has membrane folds, it receives proteins/lipids from ER in vesicles and modifies them and finalizes their structures, adds label of carbohydrate that shows the proteins where it needs to go

What are vesicles’ general function

Membrane sacs usually made by the golgi apparatus or ER that transport substances from one place to another within the cell that are

What do secretory vesicles do

carry substances that will be released from the cell and fuse with the plasma membrane to release their contents outside of the cell

What structures are lysosomes and what do these structures do

contain digestive enzymes that break down macromolecules into their monomers, break down worn-out organelles, and break down entire cells like dead cells, cells not functioning properly, and are sometime used to kill bacteria

How are peroxisomes different from lysosomes

they have enzymes that break down monomers into their atoms, are able to break down toxins such as alcohol and hydrogen peroxide, liver and kidneys have lots of these

What’s the overall function of cytoskeleton

give cell internal structure and shape

What do microfilaments(smallest) do

structure, allows cells to shapeshift(change shape)

What do intermediate filaments(medium) do

structure and keeps organelles in place such as nucleus

What do microtubules(largest) do

structure, provide a track for cell materials to move around the cell, holds organelles in place such as nucleus, moves chromosomes during cell division

Describe centrosomes

Moves chromosomes during cell division, made of two centrioles which are bundles of microtubes

What cells don’t have cell walls

animal cells and some protists,

What's the cell wall's function and location

made of different substances depending on the type of organisms, walls are outside the plasma membrane and they give the cell protection as well as a rigid/stiff shape

In general, what do vacuoles do

fluid-filled organelle that is used for storage of wastes, nutrients, and water

How does a vacuole's function differ in a plant

the vacuole takes up over half the cell and is full of water, the water in the vacuole puts pressure on the cell wall, allowing the cell wall to maintain its shape easier(turgor pressure)

What causes a plant to wilt

when plants don’t have enough water, their vacuole shrinks and the cell wall collapses

What metabolic process happens in chloroplasts

photosynthesis(turning energy from sunlight into sugar)

Why are chloroplasts green

contains chlorophyll which is a green pigment

Which type of molecule can easily pass through the membrane


Why does the location of the rough/smooth ER make sense

the rough ER collects ribosomes which is created by the nucleus and the smooth ER creates lipids that are sent to the golgi, which are both relatively close