replaced the tang dynasty in 960 and ruled for more than three centuries.
a vast organization in which appointed officials carried out the empire's policies.
the duty of family members to subordinate their needs and desires to those of the male head of the family.
a syncretic system, combining rational thought with the more abstract ideas of daoism and buddhism. evolved in china between 770-840.
focused on personal spiritual growth through silent meditation and self-discipline. Ii became strongest in southeast asia.
focused on spiritual growth for all beings and on service. it became strongest in china and korea.
focused on chanting. it became strongest in tibet.
a fast-ripening and drought-resistant strain of rice from the champa kingdom in present-day vietnam.
an inexpensive and efficient internal waterway transportation system that extended over 30,000 miles.
seljuk turks, who were also muslims, began conquering parts of the Middle east, eventually extending their power almost as far as western china. started in the 11th century and ruled by a sultan.
mumluk sultanate of egypt
malmuks seized control of the government of egypt, establishing this empire (1250-1517)
reigned for 300 years through the 13th-16th centuries after bringing islam to india. imposed a tax, jizya, on all non-muslims of the empire.
a religion based on the teachings of the prophet muhammed which stresses belief in one god (allah). holy text is the quran. followers are called muslims.
led by arabs and persians, but the later islamic states were shaped by turkic peoples who descended from people in central asia.
emphasized introspection to grasp truths that they believed could not be understood through learning.
nasir al-din al-tusi (1201-1274)
one of the most celebrated islamic scholars. contributed to astronomy, law, logic, ethics, mathematics, philosophy, and medicine. observatory was built under his direction and was the most advanced in the world and produced the most accurate astronomical charts.
'a'shah al-ba'uniyyah (1460-1507)
most prolific female muslim writer before the 20th century. her best-known work is a long poem honoring muhammed called "clear inspiration, on praise of the trusted one."
house of wisdom in abbasid baghdad
center of learning where many scholars traveled to study at; 8th century.
an arabic term that means the "house of Islam." refers to lands under Islamic rule.
a development of a strong attachment to a particular diety. started in southern asia and didn't discriminate against women/low social status.
vijayanagara empire (1336-1646)
took its name from the word for "the victorious city." began with the arrival of two brothers, harihara and bukka, from the delhi sultanate. brothers were sent because delhi wanted to expand to southern india. They left the delhi sultanate and went back to their roots of being hindu, and created their own empire.
srivijaya empire (670-1025)
hindu kingdom based in sumatra. built up its navy and prospered by charging fees for ships traveling between india & china
gradually formed in northern india and present day pakistan. hindu kingdoms led by leaders of numerous clans who were often at war with one another. no centralized government.
khmer empire (802-1431)
aka angkor kingdom. situated near mekong river. economic prosperity due to irrigation/drainage systems. one of the most prosperous kingdoms in southeast asia. capital was at angkor thom. temples showed indian culture and hindu artwork, but at some point they became buddhists. 12th-13th centuries they added buddhist artwork to the temples, but kept the hindu artwork.
majapahit kingdom (1293-1520)
based on java had 98 tributaries at its height. like srivijaya, it sustained its power by controlling sea routes. buddhist.
kingdom from thailand who forced the khmer's out in 1431.
in sri lanka. had their roots from early immigrants who arrived from india. buddhists came in the 3rd century BCE and the island became a center of buddhist study. monasteries and nunneries flourished.
mayan civilization reached its heights between 250 and 900 CE. stretched over southern part of mexico and much of what is now belize, honduras, and guatemala. form of government was the city-state.
originally hunter-gatherers who migrated to central mexico from the north in the 1200s. in 1325, they founded their capital tenochtitlan on the site of what is now mexico city. over the next 100 years they conquered the surrounding people and created an empire that stretched from the gulf of mexico to the pacific ocean.
a tribal leader called pachacuti, which means transformer or shaker of the earth, began conquering tribes and created the incan empire. it extended from present-day ecuador in the north to chile in the south. 1493 pachacuti's grandson, huayna capac, ruled the empire.
built large housing structures using stones and clay, some of which included hundreds of rooms.
built multi-story homes into the sides of cliffs using bricks made of sandstone.
the largest mound, located in southern illinois.
- A massive wall of stone, 30 feet tall and 15 feet thick, surrounded the capital city. first large wall on the continent that people built without mortar. inside the wall, most of the royal city buildings were composed of stone. by the end of the 15th century, almost 20,000 people lived within this. still stands in zimbabwe today.
12th-16th centuries, it was an island of christianity on the continent of africa. ethiopia christianity developed independently.
one kingdom divided into seven states that were connected through kinship ties. had no main central authority but rather ruled through city-states, each with a speciality. mainly benefited economically from the trans-saharan trade network
social, economic, and political systems of the middle ages.
small villages that provided everything a human needs to survive.
while not enslaved, serfs were tied to the land. they could not travel without permission from their lords, or marry without their lords approval. in exchange for protection, they payed in crops, labor, or coins. children of serfs became serfs.