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COMM3300 - Midterm Exam (Modules 1-5)

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101 Terms
šŸ˜ƒ Not studied yet (101)
Two different views of technologies
(1) utopian; (2) dystopian
Utopian (view of technology)
technology is great - positive attitude toward technology; positive outcomes and benefits
Dystopian (view of technology)
Technology is evil; sources of the negative social and economic issues
4 layers of the ecosystem perspective
(1) individual users; (2) hardware, software, content; (3) organizational infrastructure; (4) social systems
individual users
layer in ecosystem perspective people who put the technology into use
hardware/software/content
layer in ecosystem perspective 3 components of the technology itself
hardware
part of hardware/software/content layer in ecosystem perspective the physical equipment of the system
software
part of hardware/software/content layer in ecosystem perspective the programs, algorithms that enable the operation of the hardware (ex: browser, apps, software)
content
part of hardware/software/content layer in ecosystem perspective information / data shown, transmitted, created, stored over the system; without content, hardware and software are nothing
organizational infrastructure
layer in ecosystem perspective potential deployment at the organizational level (can affect/speed up development of technology); organizational support; culture and norms (partnering, endorsements)
social systems - macro level
layer in ecosystem perspective media (technology can be influenced by how media portrays technology) :: political (system): internet was a political product, net neutrality :: economic (economy): generating profit :: social (society): pokemon go added social aspects to increase usage of the game
chindogu
technologies that were created but found to be useless by users and quickly given up by the market
productivity paradox
as ICT got adopted and used, productivity remained relatively unchanged. More money was spent on computer, software; productivity remained unchanged/ stable. 90s and early 90s
ICT
information and communications technology
3 stages of technology use
(1) supplementation; (2) enlargement; (3) reconfiguration When a new communication technology is released, these stages happen. Not all technology will be lucky enough to go through all stages.
supplementation
stage of technology use an initial stage / phase: this new technology compliments use technologies to do old things in new ways cost savings rather than revenue generation
supplementation examples
effects of ______ examples - postal mail ā†’ email - face-to-face meetings ā†’ Facetime/Skype - Diary ā†’ Blogs - Dictionary ā†’ Google/Wikipedia - Social gathering ā†’ social media / online communities / virtual worlds
enlargement
stage of technology use the use of technology expands
reconfiguration
stage of technology use it will reconfigure the way we communicate, work with each other, the way we socialize, productivity. revolutionizes/changes the pattern and creates new structure. example: Facebook
(1) expected; (2) observed budget vs. time
2 telecommunications transportation tradeoff trends
(1) expected trend and (2) observed trend
Difference between the ____ trend and ___ trend of the telecommunications transportation tradeoff. As we spend more money on technology, our travel went up. Unlike what was expected, complex messages still need to be had face-to-face - which is critical to go over things in detail In the beginning, communication technology is helpful, but it does not replace human to human interpersonal communication. It does, however, enhance/augment these connections.
Moore's Law
Computational power doubles every 24 months
Metcalfe's Law
Networking technology / interactive medium requires multiple users or to gain as many users as possible. Example: Craigslist, Yelp, GroupMe V = UĀ² - U / 2 V=Value :: U=Number of Users
Examples of access or "on-demand" economy
These are examples of access or "______" economies: Uber - ride share Wikipedia - knowledge Air-BNB - share homes
Diffusion of Innovations categorized people into 5 types of technology adaptors
Everett Rogers is the founder of ___ of ___.
technology adopters
5 types of ___ ___ 1. Innovators 2. Early adopter 3. Early majority 4. Late majority 5. Laggards
bell-curve
___-curve for distribution of 5 types of adopters 1. Innovators - 2.5% 2. Early adopter - 13.5% 3. Early majority - 34% 4. Late majority - 34% 5. Laggards - 16%
S-curve
___-___: Take-off vs. growth speed of Innovation Adoption of Innovation vs. time Take-off of innovation is slow :: the adoption of innovation will be fast :: after time slowly goes by, the adoption of the technology will grow and saturate the market
positive if innovation is superior to previous technology fulfilling same needs (do it better, cheaper, faster, more effectively), faster diffusion
positive or negative factor influencing the rate of diffusion: relative advantage
positive extent to which innovation is consistent with past experience
positive or negative factor influencing the rate of diffusion: compatibility
negative if difficulty is high, the slower the rate of diffusion
positive or negative factor influencing the rate of diffusion: complexity
positive how visible/immediate is the use of innovation and seeing benefits of using technology
positive or negative factor influencing the rate of diffusion: observability
positive if there is ability to allow users to try technology, the rate of diffusion will be positive
positive or negative factor influencing the rate of diffusion: trialability
negative higher the price, slower the rate of diffusion
positive or negative factor influencing the rate of diffusion: price
rate of diffusion
6 factors influencing the ___ of ___: 1. relative advantage 2. compatibility 3. complexity 4. observability 5. trialability 6. price
cable, satellite, terrestrial (over the air/antennas)
3 major channels for TV reception in US
DTV
Digital television TV system that uses digital instead of analog signals
DTV
advantageous features of ___: less bandwidth consumption broadcasts HD TV programs superior video and audio quality
high definition television
HDTV
interlaced scanning
first scan the odd lines, then even lines to fill frame
progressive scanning
most popular scanning method each entire frame is scanned in one pass, which makes is faster
June 12, 2009
Analog-to-digital deadline in the US
people who met BOTH of these criteria: - not cable or satellite subscribers - people who do not have DTV sets
Who was affected by DTV transition?
media richness
the ability to change understanding within a time interval. continuum of richness: from lean medium (low level) to rich medium (high level) also known as "information richness"
4 dimensions of media richness
4 dimensions of ____ ____: 1. capacity for instant feedback 2. personalization 3. multiple cues 4. the use of natural/conversational language vs. formal coded language
rich
rich or lean media richness? instant feedback: face-to-face / phone conversation
medium
rich or lean media richness? slower feedback: messaging
order in media richness hierarchy
order in ___ ___ hierarchy: 1. face-to-face 2. video conferencing 3. telephone 4. text chat / IM 5. email/letters 6. poster
Media Richness Theory
Theoretical argument of ___ ___ Theory: richer media are not always better than leaner media the media use is most effective if the richness of the media matches or fits the equivocality of the communication task
equivocality
the degree to which a decision-making situation and information related to it are subject to multiple interpretations
1st era
Which era of 5 eras in the history of computers and the Internet: 1954-1963 scientific and engineering applications (conduct numerical calculations, research purposes) military focus (Cold War) machine-specific programming languages - lack of compatibility across different machines primitive computers by today's standards (large size, punch cards, magnetic tape storage) pre-internet era: isolated computers (no internet) value: do things more quickly
2nd era
Which era of 5 eras in the history of computers and the Internet: 1964-1976 computers got connected - ARPANET constructed in 1969 new computer architecture established to differentiate business applications and scientific computations two divisions of computer development: (1) super computers for military use/research; (2) modern, lower-end computers for business (IBM) standardized programming languages
3rd era
Which era of 5 eras in the history of computers and the Internet: 1977-1984 Users became involved in system development - computers became more user friendly increasing focus on business / commercial applications IBM's first PC was invented in 1981 - affordable, portable, easier to operate easy-to-use operating systems and interface (Microsoft DOS) 1983: required use of IP and TCP protocols to regulate how packets were transmitted 1984: ARPANET split into two networks: ARPANET and MILNET
internet protocol
IP
transmission and control protocols
TCP
4th era
Which era of 5 eras in the history of computers and the Internet: 1985-1996 PCs popularized user-driven software and programs commercialization of the Internet and applications
5th era
Which era of 5 eras in the history of computers and the Internet: 1997-2005 diffusion of the internet www growth: "web 1.0" - static websites that provide information vs interaction search engines became a driving force because of increased information on the web mobile computing was not "smart" yet dot-com bubble: financial crisis - over-investment into the internet
1990
when was WWW (world wide web) created?
decentralized packet switching computer network more robust, resilient, flexible than a centralized network
What is the fundamental mechanism of the computer network (internet)?
The first Internet Created by ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency)
What is ARPANET?
Department of Defense (Pentagon)
Who founded ARPANET?
1969
When was ARPANET (the first internet) found?
1983 - 3rd era
What year and era required use of IP and TCP?
1st era
What era was 1954-1963?
2nd era
What era was 1964-1976?
3rd era
What era was 1977-1984?
4th era
What era was 1985-1996?
5th era
What era was 1997-2004?
new era
2004-now
new era
Which era is this: "web 2.0" mobile communication and computing - rise of smart phones and mobile apps cloud computing augmented reality
web 1.0
Web X.0 is: focus on publishing information
web 2.0
Web X.0 is: focus on searching and sharing information about users and user interaction
1969
when was the Internet created?
1990
when was WWW created?
1971
When was email created
Mosaic
What is the first graphical browser
1993
When was Mosiac created
1994
What year did commercial users outnumber academic users 2-1
1995
What year: NSFNET back to research network Internet was commercialized: AOL, Prodigy, Compuserve, Delify
National Science Foundation Network
What is NSFNET
reinvention
After the 5 types of technology adopters, what is the new added 6th type?
internet
Internet vs WWW: which one is this global network connecting millions of independent computers decentralized
world wide web
Internet vs WWW: which one is this information-sharing model built on top of the internet using the HTTP protocol to transmit data. uses browsers to access web pages linked via hyperlinks
the "big three"
this is the "___ ___" Artificial Intelligence Big data Cloud computing
cloud computing
storage of data software on the internet performance of computational tasks away from computers taking place on servers / internet
cloud storage
examples of ___ ___ systems: Dropbox, Google Docs, iCloud, Box, SkyDrive
the cloud
these are advantages of the ___: flexibility, mobility, portability, mostly free, supports collaborative work, no need to back up work
the cloud
cons of the ___: dead without internet, limited storage, privacy and security
augmented reality
the interaction of superimposed graphics, audio, and other sense enhancements over real-world environment that is displayed in real-time
augmented reality
AR
wearable technology and games
current application of augmented reality: apple watch, google glass, pokemon go
unintended consequences
three types of ____ ____: 1. a positive unexpected benefit 2. a potential source of problems 3. a negative or perverse effect
smart mobs
___ ___: a form of self-organizing social group through technology-mediated, intelligent "emergent behavior"
volume, velocity, variety, veracity
the four V's of Big Data
volume
4 V's of Big Data: scale of data, size
velocity
4 V's of Big Data: analysis of streaming data, network connections, trade information
variety
4 V's of Big Data: different forms of data - nature, source, types (videos, tweets, content) diversified types of data
veracity
4 V's of Big Data: uncertainty of data about accuracy, the right kind of data does data truthfully represent what you are collecting
artificial intelligence (AI)
the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs non-human agents think and act like humans
artificial intelligence (AI)
components of ___ ___: perception and cognition machine learning and reasoning planning and problem-solving communication motion and manipulation social and affective computing - ability to interact, identify emotions
artificial intelligence (AI)
potential impacts of ___ ___" job displacement (finance, health, education) skill degeneration loss of control and accountability human extinction??