Psych Ch 4 + 5

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124 Terms
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behavior genetics
study of relative power and limitations of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
nongenetic influence (nutrition, people and things around us)
threadlike structure made of DNA molecules containing genes
molecule containing genetic info making up chromosomes
biochemical units of heredity that make up chromosomes, either expressed or not expressed
protein molecule
body's building blocks when genes are turned on
common genetic profile, instructions to create organism consisting of all genetic material in chromosomes, small differences can change behavior and show uniqueness between humans
identical twins
develop as single egg fertilized that is split into two, genetically identical
fraternal twins
two separate fertilized eggs, genetically the same as siblings
emotional reactivity and excitability, genetically influenced
proportion of variation in individuals attributed to genes, varies from range in populations and environments studied, a uniform environment would show a high heritability because there are no environmental differences
molecular genetics
studies molecular structure and function of genes
molecular behavior genetics
studies structure and function of genes in interacting with environment to influence behavior
study of molecular mechanisms of which environment triggers or blocks genetic expression
genes react instead of acting as blueprints that leads to the same result no matter context
epigenetic marks
organic methyl molecules attached to part of DNA strand that tells cell to ignore gene, based on environmental factors
evolutionary psychology
study of evolution of behavior and mind, use principals of natural selection, focus on what makes humans so alike
natural selection
an inherited trait variation that contributes to reproduction and survival will be passed on to generations
random error in gene replication leads to change
changing to survive in new or different envrionments
sexual overperception bias
believing partners express more sexual interest than actually, strongest in men who don't require emotional closeness before sex
social scripts
culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations created from watching and imitating others and figuring out what's safe
interplay occurs when the effect of one factor depends on another, ex environment depends on heredity
pruning process
experiences trigger and strengthen neural pathways, unused neural pathways weaken and gradually disappear
peer influence
more will be likely to have behaviors if peers are also doing it
behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted to each generation
preservation of innovation
use of technology like language to maintain culture
division of labor
group of people divide work
understood rule for accepted and expected behaviors (how to dress, etc)
culture shock
don't understand what expected or accepted in different cultures
giving priority to ones own goals over group goals and defining ones identity in terms of personal attribute rather than group identifications
priority to goals of group and defining ones identity accordingly
group identification
role in group, provides sense of belonging, set of values, security
biologically influenced characteristics, male and female
socially influenced characteristics which people define "men and women"
physical or verbal behavior intended to harm someone physically or emotional
relational aggression
act of aggression intended to harm persons relationship or social standing
male answer syndrome
men are more likely to hazard answers than admit they don't know them
females compete less and imitate social relationships
sex chromosomes found in men and women, females have 2, males have 1
sex chromosome only found in males
most important male sex hormone, found in both male and female, stimulates growth of male sex organs during fetal period and puberty
puberty of sexual maturation, when they are capable of reproducing
primary sex characteristics
body structures that make sexual reproduction possible (ovaries, testes, external genitalia)
secondary sex characteristics
non-reproductive sexual traits (female breasts/hips, male voice quality, body hair)
first ejaculation, male puberty landmark, often occurring in sleep, about age 14
first menstrual period, female puberty landmark, usually age 12
disorder of sexual development
inherited condition involving unusual development of sex chromosomes and anatomy, fetus exposed to unusual levels of sex hormones or sensitive to hormones
gender role
set of expected behaviors, attitudes, traits for male/female, shift over time/culture
gender identity
sense of being male, female, etc
social learning theory
theory we learn social behavior by being observed and punished/rewarded
gender typing
taking on traditional male/female role, varies between child
show both traditional masc and fem psychological characteristics
concepts that help us make sense of world, built by maturing brain
umbrella term for people whose gender identity/expression differs from that associated with their birth sex
developmental psychology
studies physical, cognitive, social change throughout life span, nature vs nurture, continuity and stages, stability and change
fertilized egg, enters 2-week period of rapid cell division
developing human organism, 2 weeks after fertilization through second month, inner cells of zygote, embryos organs start to develop at 6 weeks
life-link that transfers nutrients and oxygen from mother and screen out harmful substances, outer cells of zygote
developing human organism 9 weeks after conception to birth, organs developed at six months
agents reach embryo/fetus during prenatal development that causes harm (alcohol, drugs, etc)
fetal alcohol syndrome
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by pregnant woman's heavy drinking, in severe cases shown as small head and abnormal facial features
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation, babies become more disinterested with familiar stimuli
biological growth processes enable orderly changes in behavior, not influenced by experience
mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicated
Jean Piaget
development psychologist studying child cognitive development, believed intellectual progression reflects struggle to make sense of experience
interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas
adapting current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new info
sensorimotor stage
Piaget stage birth to 2 yrs, infants know world in sensory impressions and motor activities (looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, grasping), no object permanence
object permenance
awareness things exist even when not perceived
preoperational stage
Paiget stage 2-6 yrs, learn to use language, doesn't comprehend mental operations of concrete logic
quantity remains same despite changes in shape, child believes tall glass holds more liquid than wide glass even if it is the same amount of liquid
difficulty perceiving things from another point of view
curse of knowledge
overestimate extent to which others share opinions and perspectives, assuming if something's clear to us, its clear to others
theory of mind
peoples ideas about their own/others mental states about their feelings, perceptions, thoughts, behaviors might predict
concrete operational stage
Piaget state 7-11 yrs, gain mental operations enabling them to think logically about concrete events
formal operation stage
Piaget stage 12-adulthood, abstract thinking, imagined realities and symbols, hypothetical propositions and deduce result, "if then than that"
Lev Vygotsky
Russian psychologist who believed that the mind grows through social environment, children think in word and use words to solve problems, using words like "no no" for self control, language is the building blocks of thinking
Autism Spectrum Disorder
disorder in childhood with significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction, have rigidly fixed interests and repetitive behaviors
Asperger's syndrome
high level functioning
stranger anxiety
fear of unfamiliar faces, cannot assimilate new face into schemas for familiar faces, reach for familiar caregivers
emotional tie with another person, young children seek closeness with caregivers and show distress on separation
critical period
optimal period early in life when exposure to certain stimuli/experiences produce normal development
process which certain animals form strong attachments during early life, ducklings follow thing first moving
secure attachment
infants play comfortably in presence of mother, distressed when mother not present, look to seek contact
insecure attachment
anxiety avoiding trusting relationships, infants didn't explore surroundings, cling to mother, cry loudly or seem indifferent when left alone
insecure attached, crave acceptance, remain vigilant to signs of possible rejection, sensitive to threat
discomfort getting close to others, maintain distance from others, decrease in commitment
all thoughts and feelings about ourself
parents impose rules and expect obedience, kids have less social skill and self-esteem
parents make few demands and use little punishment, indifferent, unresponsive, unwilling, kids more aggressive and immature
parents both demanding and responsive, set rules but encourage open discussion allow exceptions, kids have highest self-esteem, self-reliance, social competence
life-span perspectives
development life long, how maturation and experience shape up
transition period from childhood to adulthood, begins at puberty
period of sexual maturation during which a period becomes capable of reproducing
moral reasoning
thinking occurring consider right and wrong, build on cognitive development
Laurence Kohlberg
believed in three levels of moral thinking form moral ladder
moral intuition
quick, gut feelings, make judgement automatically, ex disgust when seeing degrading acts
Preconventional morality
Kohlberg level before age 9, self-interest, obey rules to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards
conventional morality
Kohlberg level early adolescence, uphold laws to gain social approval and maintain social order
postconventional morality
Kohlberg level adolescence and beyond, actions reflect belief in basic rights and self-defined ethical principals
Erik Erikson
believed each stage of life has own psychosocial task
trust vs mistrust
Erikson stage 1 yr, if needs of dependency met, basic sense of trust formed
autonomy vs shame and doubt
Erikson stage 1-3 yrs, learn to exercise will and do things for self or doubt abilities
initiative vs guilt
Erikson stage 3-6 yrs, preschoolers initiate tasks and carry out plans or feel guilty about efforts to be independent
competence vs inferiority
Erikson stage 6yr-puberty, learn pleasure of applying to tasks or feel inferior
identity vs role confusion
Erikson stage teen-20 yr, refine sense of self by testing roles and integrating to form single identity or become confused by who they are
intimacy vs isolation
Erikson stage 20s-early 40s, struggle form close relationships and gain capacity for intimate love or feel socially isolated
generativity vs stagnation
Erikson stage 40s-60s, discover sense of contributing to world (family and work) or may feel lack of purpose
integrity vs despair
Erikson stage late 60s, reflect on life, feel satisfaction or failure
sense of self, adolescence solidify identity by testing roles, formed by how we differ from those around us
social identity
"we" aspect of self-concept, group memberships
ability to form close loving relationships
emerging adulthood
18-mid 20s no longer adolescence but not yet reached full independence as adults
natural cessation of menstration, biological changes as ability to reproduce declines
tips of chromosomes, wear down with age, accelerated with smoke, obesity, stress, etc
cross-sectional study
study of people of different ages compared
longitudinal study
study same people restudied over long period of time
neurocognitive disorders
acquired disorders marked by cognitive deficits, often related to Alzheimer, brain injury disease, substance abuse, formerly called dementia
Alzheimers Disease
marked by neural plaques, often with onset after 80, progressive decline in memory and other cognitive abilities, loss of brain cells and deterioration of neurons
midlife transition
crisis, realize life soon mostly behind them than ahead, triggered by major events (illness, divorce, job loss, etc)
social clock
culturally preferred timing of social events (marriage, parenthood, retirement)
being productive and supporting future generations
feeling ones life has been meaningful and worthwhile