UNH Anatomy Exam 1 CH 1, 2, 3

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Integumentary System
Organs: Skin, hair, sweat glands, nails Functions: Protects against environmental hazards Helps regulate body temp Provides sensory info
Skeletal System
Organs: Bones, cartilage, assoc ligaments, bone marrow Functions: Provides support and protection for other tissues Stores calcium and other minerals Forms blood cells
Muscular System
Organs: Skeletal muscles and assoc tendons Functions: Provides movement Provides protection and support for other tissues Generates hear that maintains body temp
Nervous System
Organs: Brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, sense organs Functions: Directs immediate responses to stimuli Coordinates or moderates activities of other organ systems Provides and interprets sensory info about external conditions
Endocrine System
Organs: Pituitary gland, thyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, gonads, endocrine tissues in other systems Functions: Directs long term changes in the activities of other systems Adjusts metabolic activity and energy use by the body Controls many structural and functional changes during development
Cardiovascular System
Organs: Heart, Blood, Blood Vessels Functions: Dist. blood cells, water and dissolved materials including nutrients, waste products, oxygen, and carbon dioxide Dist. heat and assists in control of body temp
Lymphatic System
Organs: Spleen, thymus, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils Functions: Defends against infection and disease Returns tissue fluids to the bloodstream
Respiratory System
Organs: Nasal cavities, sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, alveoli Functions: Delivers air to alveoli (sites in lungs where gas exchange occurs) Provides oxygen to bloodstream Removes carbon dioxide from bloodstream Produces sounds for communication
Digestive System
Organs: Teeth, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, sm and large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas Functions: Processes and digests food Absorbs and conserves water Absorbs nutrients Stores energy reserves
Urinary System
Organs: Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra Functions: Excretes waste products from the blood Controls water balance by regulating volume of urine produced Stores urine prior to voluntary elimination Regulates blood ion concentrations and pH
Male Reproductive
Organs: testes, epididymis, ductus deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, penis, scrotum Functions: Produces male sex cells (sperm), seminal fluids, and hormones Sexual intercourse
Female Reproductive
Organs: Ovaries, uterus, uterine tubes, vagina, labia, clitoris, mammary glands Functions: Produces female sex cells (oocytes) and hormones Supports developing embryo from conception to delivery Provides milk to nourish newborn infant Sexual intercourse
The study of internal and external body structures and their physical relationships among other body parts
The study of how living organisms perform their functions. Biochem, bio, chem, genetics
The principle of complementarity of structure and function
All specific functions are performed by specific structures and the form of a structure relates to its function
Gross Anatomy
(Macroscopic Anatomy) Involves examining relatively large structures- no microscope- dissecting
Surface Anatomy
Type of gross anatomy- the study of general form and superficial markings. exterior features
Regional Anatomy
Type of gross- focuses on the anatomical organization of specific areas of the body (head, neck, trunk)
Systemic Anatomy
Type of Gross- study of the structure of organ systems (groups of organs that function together in a coordinated manner) ex. muscular system, cardiovascular system
Clinical Anatomy
Type of gross- Includes a # of sub specialties important in clinical practice ex. Pathological anatomy: anatomical features that change during illness, radiographic anatomy: anatomical structures seen using specialized imaging techniques, surgical anatomy: anatomical landmarks important in surgery
Developmental Anatomy
Type of gross- describes the changes in form that take place between conception and adulthood.
Microscopic Anatomy
Deals w structures that we cant see without magnification. Cells and molecules
Type of microscopic- the study of the internal structure of individual cells.
The simplest units of life. made up of chem substances in various combinations. Lives depend on chem processes taking place in trill. of cells in body. Groups of atoms, molecules, and organelles
Type of microscopic- Examination of tissues and structures
Groups of specialized cells and cell products that work together to perform specific functions
Combined tissues- Heart, kidney, liver.
Human Physiology
Study of the functions or workings of human body. More difficult to examine than anatomical structures
Cell Physiology
Study of functions of cells. looks at events involving atoms and molecules important to life. Chem processes within cells as well as chem interactions among cells
Organ Physiology
Study of the functions of specific organs.
Systemic Physiology
Includes all aspects of the functioning of specific organ systems
Pathological Physiology
Study of the effects of diseases on organ functions or system functions
An objective disease indication (fever)
A subjective disease indication (tiredness)
Scientific Method
A system of advancing knowledge that begins by proposing a hypothesis to answer a question- testing that hypothesis w data collected thru observation and experimentation
Chemical (Molecular) Level
Atoms: Smallest stable units of matter. Can combine to form molecules w complex shapes. Anatomic components and 3D shape of molecule determine its function. Molecule=group of atoms working together
Cellular Level
Cells: Smallest living units in the body. complex molecules form various types of larger structures called organelles. Ea organelle has specific function in cell.
Tissue Level
Tissue: group of cells working together to perform one or more specific functions.
Organ Level
Organs: made of two or more tissues working together to perform specific functions.
Organ System Level
Organ System: Group of organs interacting to perform particular function. Humans have 11
Organism Level
Organism: Human- highest level of organization that we consider. All body systems must work together to maintain the life and health of the organism
All body systems working together to maintain Existence of a stable internal environment. Vital to organisms survival, failure leads to illness/ death. Goal to physiological regulation
Homeostatic regulation
The adjustment of physiological systems to preserve homeostasis
Autoregulation (intrinsic)
Automatic Process that occurs when a cell, tissue, organ, or organ system adjusts in response to some environmental change
Extrinsic Regulation
Process that results from the activities of the nervous system or endocrine system.Organ systems detect an environmental change and send electrical signal (nervous sys-more rapid) or chemical messenger (endocrine sys- slower) to control or adjust the activities of another or many other systems simultaneously
Chem messengers sent into blood stream by endocrine system.
Sensor that is sensitive to a particular stimulus or environmental change. Receives stimulus
Control Center
Receives and processes info supplied by receptor and sends out commands.
Cell/organ that responds to commands of control center and whose activity either opposes / enhances stimulus. Carries out instructions
Set point
Desired value. Control center keeps within reasonable limits. Effector helps get there.
Negative Feedback
Effector activated by the control center opposes/ negates the original stimulus. Minimizes change. Normal range is achieved
Positive Feedback
Produces a response that exaggerates or enhances the original change in conditions rather than opposing it. Extreme responses- speed up processes. Moved away from homeostasis, normal range is lost.
Control of body temp. Relationship between heat loss (body surface) and heat production (all active tissues) is altered Body temp can vary due to changes in the set point or small fluctuations around the set point
Positive Feedback Loop
Typically found when a potentially dangerous/stressful process must be completed quickly to restore homeostasis
Organ systems malfunction due to infection, injury, or genetic abnormality in which effects are so severe that homeostatic mechanisms cannot fully compensate for them so one or more variables are pushed outside their normal range of values
State of equilibrium
Opposing processes or forces are in balance
Dynamic Equilibrium
Maintaining a state of equilibrium that keeps vital conditions within a normal range of values. Systems are continually adapting and adjusting to changing conditions
Superficial Anatomy
Involves locating structures on or near the body surface
Anatomical Landmarks
Structures that can be felt or palpated
Anatomical Regions
Specific areas used for reference purposes (quadrants and regions)
Anatomical Position
Hands at sides palms forward feet together standing
Anterior(ventral) view
Shows body from the front
Posterior(dorsal) view
Shows body from the back
Person lying down in anatomical position face up
Person lying down in anatomical position face down
Abdominopelvic Quadrants
formed by pair of imaginary perpendicular lines that intersect at umbilicus (navel) Right upper Left upper Right lower left lower
Abdominopelvic regions
More precise. (9) right hypochondriac-epigastric-left hypochondriac right lumbar-umbillical-left lumar right inguinal-hypogastric(pubic)-left inguinal
Toward the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk
Away from the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk
Away from midline
Toward midline
Toward tail (coccyx)
Cranial/ cephalic
Toward head
At, near, or relatively close to body surface
Toward interior of body, farther from surface
Sectional Planes
(3) Plane=3D axis, section= single view or slice alone one of the planes
Plane: Divides body into superior and inferior (top and bottom)- perpendicular to long axis Section: cut in this plane-cross section.
Frontal (coronal)
Oriented parallel to long axis. separates anterior and posterior (front and back)
Oriented parallel to long axis. Separated right and left portions. midsagittal- plane passes through midline, equal sides parasagittal- misses midline. unequal sides
Body cavities
Closed, fluid filled, lined by thin tissue layer called serous membrane/serosa. internal regions Protect delicate organs from shocks and impacts permit significant changes in size and shape of internal organs
Ventral Cavity
(coelom) DIvided by diaphragm. Thoracic abdominopelvic
Thoracic cavity
Pleural cavity- sep into left and right by mediastinum. right and left lungs. serous membrane lining=pleura Pericardial-sm chamber surrounds heart. serous membrane=pericardium
Peritoneal-serous membrane= peritoneum Abdominal- (superior) extends from inferior surface of diaphragm to level of superior margins of pelvis. liver, stomach, spleen, sm intestine, most of large intestine (retroperitoneal- between peritoneal lining and muscular wall of abdominal cavity) Pelvic- inferior to abdominal. urinary bladder, reproductive organs and distal portion of lrg intestine, rectum (infraperitoneal- extend inferior to peritoneal cavity)
Flat muscular sheet. Separates anatomical regions
Large mass of connective tissue that surrounds, stabilizes, and supports esophagus, trachea, thymus, and major blood vessels that originate or end at heart. Upper- filled w blood vessels, trachea, esophagus, thymus Lower- pericardial cavity: heart
Internal organs that are enclosed by cavities. delicate serous membrane lines walls of internal cavities and covers surfaces of viscers
Serous fluid
Watery fluid, moistens serous membranes, coats opposing surfaces, and reduces friction
Visceral serosa
Portion of serous membrane that covers visceral organ
Parietal serosa
Lines inner surface of body wall or chamber/cavity
Science of change
Anything that takes up space and has mass. Made up of atoms. Atoms join together to form chem w diff characteristics Chem characteristics det physiology at molecular and chem levels
Amount of material in matter. Physical property that determines weight in Earth's gravitational field
Subatomic Particles
Compose atoms
Positive charge. 1 mass unit. In nucleus
Neutral charge. 1 mass unit. In nucleus
Negative charge. Low mass. Located in electron cloud. Attracted to proton.
Mass # of atom
Protons + neutrons
Atomic Number
Number of protons
Electron cloud
Dimensions determine the overall size of atom. Electrons determine reactivity of the atom. Contains shells/ energy levels that hold max # of electrons. lower shells fill first. first one=2. Outermost=valence shell-determines bonding. # electrons per shell corresp to # of atoms in that row of the periodic table
Pure substance composed of atoms of only one kind. Determined by the atomic # of an atom. Most basic chemicals. Cannot be changed or broken down into simpler substances in chemical reactions
Specific version of an element based on its mass #. Different isotopes of the same element have diff # of neutrons
Unstable isotopes. Spontaneously break down (radioactive decay) and give off subatomic particles/radiation in measurable amounts
Half Life
Decay rate of radioisotope. The time required for 1/2 of a given amount of the isotope to decay
Chemical Bonds
Involve the sharing, gaining, and losing electrons in the valence shell. Hold participating atoms together once the reaction has ended. New chemical entities called molecules and compounds are created
Do not readily participate in chemical processes. (inert gases- atoms do not react w one another and do not combine w atoms of other elements- they have filled outermost energy levels)
Refers to any chem structure consisting of atoms held together by shared electrons. strong bonds
Two or more atoms of diff elements joined by strong or weak bonds
Atom/ group of atoms that has an electric charge (pos or neg) Un= # of protons and electrons. Atoms become ions by gaining or losing electrons
Ions w pos charge
Ions w neg charge
Ionic Bonds
Chem bonds created by the electrical attraction between cations and anions -One atom- electron donor- loses one or more electrons and becomes cation w pos charge -Another atom-electron acceptor- gains those same electrons and becomes anion w neg charge -Attraction between opposite charges then draws the two ions together links fully charged
Covalent Bonds
Sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms Very strong- shared electrons hold atoms together -1 electron is donated by each atom to make the pair of electrons -Sharing one pair of electrons is a single covalent bond -Sharing two pairs of electrons is a double covalent bond -Sharing three pairs of electrons is a triple covalent bond
Non polar covalent
Involve equal sharing of electrons bc atoms involved in the bond have = pull for the electrons (non polar- no pos or neg ends)
Polar covalent
Involve the unequal sharing of electrons because one of the atoms involved in the bond has a disproportionately strong pull on the electrons (water)
Hydrogen Bonds
Weak Bonds between adjacent molecules not atoms Involve slightly pos and slightly neg portions of polar molecules being attracted to one another hydrogen bonds between h2o molecules cause surface tension links partially charged
Constant volume and shape
Constant volume but changes shape
Changes volume and shape. can be compressed or expanded
Chemical Reaction
New chem bonds form between atoms or existing bonds between atoms are broken. Can't start without help.
Materials going into reaction. Reacting substances
Materials coming out of a reaction
All of the reactions that are occurring at one time
Movement of an object or a change in the physical structure of matter
The capacity to do work. Movement or physical change cannot take place without. Cannot be destroyed, only converted from one form to another
Kinetic Energy
Energy of motion. can be transferred to another object and do work
Potential Energy
Stored energy. has the potential to do work. may derive from an objects position or from phys or chem structure
Chemical Energy
Potential energy stored in chem bonds
Decomposition Reaction(catabolism)
breaks a molecule into smaller fragments (AB->A+B) take place inside/outside cells Hydrolysis- one of the bonds in a complex molecule is broken and the components of a water molecule are added to the resulting fragments (A-B+H2O->A-H+HO-B)
Synthesis Reaction(Anabolism)
Assembles smaller molecules into larger molecules. Uphill process bc it takes energy to create chem bond. Forms chem bonds (A+B->AB) Dehydration Synthesis(condensation reaction)- (A-H+HO-B->A-B+H2O)
Exchange Reaction
Involves decomposition first then synthesis. parts of reacting molecules are shuffled around to produce new products. (AB+CD->AD+CB) reactants and products contain same components., but those are present in diff combinations.
Reversible reaction
(A+B<->AB) At equilibrium the amounts of chemicals do not change even tho the reactions are still occurring. Seek equilibrium, balancing opposing reaction rates. Add/remove reactants- reaction rates adjust to reach a new equilibrium
Activation Energy
The amount of energy required to start a reaction- activate reactants.
Protein catalysts that lower the activation energy of reactions- promote chemical reactions catalysts- compounds that speed up chem reactions without themselves being permanently changed or consumed
Exergonic (exothermic)
Amount of energy released is greater than the activation energy needed to start the reaction, so release energy. (exo-outside, ergon-work) Produce more E than use
Endergonic (Endothermic)
More energy required to begin reaction than is released, reaction as a whole will absorb energy (endo-inside) Use more E than use
Essential molecules obtained from food Carbs, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water
Substances involved in/byproduct of metabolism. Made or broken down in body
Inorganic Compounds
Not based on carbon/hydrogen -carbon dioxide, byproduct of cell metabolism -oxygen, atmospheric gas required in important metabolic reactions -water, accounts for most of body weight (2/3) -inorganic acids, bases, salts- compounds held together partially/completely by ionic bonds
Organic Compounds
Always contain carbon/hydrogen -carbs, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
Will dissolve/break up in water
Uniform mixture of two or more substances
Liquid in which other atoms, ions, or molecules are dist.
Dissolved substance- indiv dispersed
Most body chem occurs in water
High Heat capacity
Heat capacity- the quantity of heat required to raise the temp of a unit mass of a substance 1C Water is high bc water molecules in liquid state are attracted to one another thru hydrogen bonding Consequences= temp of water must be high before all H bonds broken between indiv water molecules and have enough E to break free and become water vapor(gas). carries a lot of heat away w it when it changes liq->gas. Large amt of heat E is required to change the temp of 1g of water by 1C so large mass of water changes temp slowly (thermal inertia)
Thermal inertia
Helps stabilize body temp bc water accounts for up to 2/3 body weight
Effective lubricant bc little friction between water molecules. Even thin layer will greatly reduce friction between.