Western Civ. Chapter 3 Test

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In the Spartan government, which institution was the most democratic?
the assembly
The Spartans felt compelled to make the army the primary focus of their society because
of the threat of rebellion by their slaves
Which of these statements tended to be true of tyrants?
they were generally aristocrats.
In the Greek world, a polis was a(n)
agricultural village, town, or small city. community sharing common ancestors and religious rites. independent political unit.
The primary cause of the First Peloponnesian War was
the policies of Athens's new regime.
Thucydides was an Athenian who
wrote the history of the Peloponnesian War.
Solon's reforms
forbade debt slavery increased economic specialization had long-lasting impacts
The Greek colonization movement around 750 BCE is most closely linked to
long-distance trade.
The plays of Aeschylus and Sophocles were
tragedies based on mythological subjects and dealing with religion, politics, ethics, and morality.
A hoplite phalanx is a
disciplined, closed fighting formation.
The Athenians lost the Great Peloponnesian War because
Pericles's strategy failed None of Pericles's successors could hold the state to a consistent policy.
Homer's epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey, reflect the values and society of which period in Greek history?
"dark ages" or Archaic the idealism of self-sufficiently, and Xenia. Emerged with Aristotle centuries after the Bronze Age
Which qualities would a Homeric hero prize most dearly
individual prowess, courage, protection of family
At the outset of the Great Peloponnesian War, the Athenian strategy was
to allow their own land to be devastated
The Persian War sea battle that led to the withdrawal of Xerxes was
Battle of Salamis
Athens became the leader of the Delian League because
Athens had Greece's largest navy.
a down or city or village that surrounds a country side. where they practiced political social and religious activities.
heavily armed infantry men who wore bronze or leather helmets, breastplates and wore shin guards. carried around a 9 ft long spear.
rectangular formation in tight order, usually 8 ranks deep
rulers who seized power by force and who were not subject to the law.
free inhabitants not critizens who were required to pay taxes and perform military service for Sparta.
bound to the land and forced to work on farms and as household servants for Spartans.
two kings who ruled. maily responcible for military affairs and served as leaders of Sparta.
philosophers who though that it was foolish that the universe was beyond the reach of the human mind. Would sell their knowledge.
-the art of persuasive speaking -debates and swaying an audience
Socratic method
employs a question-and-answer technique to lead pupils to see things for themselves using their own reason.
how did the geography of Greece affect Greek history?
Greece was in a small area, surrounded by mountains and the ocean. the terrain was was mountainous so the city-states were cut off from one another. They each had their own separate ways of life.
Who was Homer?
-wrote the Iliad and the odyssey. -greatest poet of all time.
Why was homers work used as the basis for Greek education?
Homers writings consisted of hero's. everybody wanted to be like them, so they looked up to these books.this books tough courage.
How did the major city-states(polis) of Athens and Sparta differ?
Spartans were mostly for the gov't. Their military was very strong. Athens was more democracy and its city-states had more power to the people.
What did the Greeks mean by democracy?
ruled by the people and power to the people.
what ways was the Athenian political system a democracy?
they were separated from all the other city-states and had their own independence, so they made up their own laws.
What effect did the Persian War have on Greek civilization?
it made everyone afraid the Spartans. they were stronger and had very good military tactics. caused great destruction to the Greek civilizations. Athens also arose to become a Greek leader—only rival was the Spartans
How were classical Greek art expressed?
through writing, plays, stories, painting
What questions did the Greek philosophers pose, and what were their answers?
Greek philosophers said to question society and the world around them. they studied human behavior.
an epic romance about journey of Odysseus how he is reunited with his wife.
council of elders in Sparta
assembly of all male citizens. Spartan.
assembly of full citizens, had few power. Athens.
cancled all current land debts, outlawed new loans, freed people who had fallen into salvery for debt.
a new type of order for Hellenistic peroid.
Island of Crete
first society of Greeks, capital knossus
first greek mainland civilization
Dark age of Greace
1100-800 BC -decline of culture -writing went away -nuthing build -shortage of food/ less trade
Rebirth/ Renessance
800-600 BC "greek renessance" -writing started -epic poetry
king of miceney, comander and cheaf of greek forces
characters are in universal times. people relate to it believes there are ethical values people should live by.
Rise of the Polis
800-400 B.C.E
Homeric epics transcribed
c. 750 B.C.E
Hoplite tactics become standard
725-650 B.C.E
Militarization of Sparta
C. 600 B.C.E
Emergence of the Milesian School (pre-Socratic philosophy)
600-500 B.C.E
Solon’s reforms in Athens
594 B.C.E
Cyprus of Persia conquers Lydia and Controls the Geek cities of Ionia
546 B.C.E
Overthrownment of the Peisistratid tyranny in Athens
510 B.C.E
Ionian Revolt against Persia
499-494 B.C.E
Battle of Marathon
490 B.C.E
Battles of Thermopylae and Salamis
480 B.C.E
Formation of Delian League led by Athens
478 B.C.E
The Peloponnesian war begins (Sparta vs. Athens)
431 B.C.E
Defeat of Athens by Sparta— Peloponnesian war ends
404 B.C.E
The execution/death of Socrates
399 B.C.E
All Greek.
Mother Polis
Mother of colony
The equipment and attire that a hoplite wore and used
8th Century B.C.E
When ariostocratic classes emerged.
Ariostocratic drinking party, listened to poetry and music, there were prostitutes, and gay sex— Aristocratic man on man (Homasocial)
Someone rising up in a government and seizing power
Hoplites Jobs’
Farming, everyday jobs.
Government of cruel rule—Seen in Sparta and Athens
Government system tht helped citizens be in and participate in government
Union of country and town
The land outside the city. Attica to Athens
The urban settlement—buildings and towns
An elite/noble
Political unrest
War—civil or not
Series of rhythmic verses sung with a lyre
Person wielding executive authority in Athens—9 archons every year
Debt Slavery
Give your body up to pay debts—Solon abolished debt slavery in 564 B.C.E.
“Rule of the few” Small group rule a government
Spartan Secret Service that would stop helot revolt in their colonies
Atheian warship with oars.
Hellenic League
The alliance between the polies to combat the Persian Empire
Delian League
League led by Athens to stop any future Persian conflicts.
Low class citizens in Athens that worked on and rowed the Triremes—Pericles fought for their rights.
Athenian Military Leader
The event devoted to Dionysis in Athens
Hoplite infantry
Military of a polis
peloponnesian league
The league of Sparta and its allies to combat the Delian League—Made because Athens made an alliance with Persia
Disease that wiped out 1/3 of Athens in the Peloponnesian war—Respiratory and also killed Pericles
the ancient Greek known as the father of history; his accounts of the wars between the Greeks and Persians are the first known examples of historical writing. Ionian-born
800 B.C.E: wrote the odyssey and the Iliad; these books were later accepted as education.
one of the greatest of the ancient Athenian philosophers; pupil of Plato; teacher of Alexander the Great; didn't like democracy.
460-395 B.C.E. Athenian historian remembered for his history of the Peloponnesian War. Exiled.
430-354 B.C.E.. Greek general and historian; student of Socrates. Athenian.
428-348 B.C.E: ancient Athenian philosopher; pupil of Socrates; teacher of Aristotle; argued only real love was between 2 equal men, wanted to train Athenian leadership; created The Academy.
596-546 B.C.E; last king of Lydia
Solon the reformer
630-560 B.C.E; a demagogue; self-made, merchant; was the sole Archon; . Created Solon's Reforms. Exiled himself. canceled all current land debts outlawed new loans and freed people who had fallen into slavery for debt.
607-527 B.C.E; established tyranny in Athens; lasted only 2 generations
aristocrat that checked the power of oligarchs; overthrew the government in Athens, reorganized Athens; strengthened the power of the Athenian Assembly; extended the machinery of democratic government.
550-476 B.C.E; Milesian that expanded the horizon by mapping the world.
560-478 B.C.E.; Milesian philosopher; believed all human knowledge is based on experience
The tyrant that ruled Miletus; started the Ionian revolt(499-494 B.C.E), which triggered the Persian War.
550-486 B.C.E: the king of Persia who expanded the Persian Empire and invaded Greece but was defeated at the battle of Marathon.
519-466 B.C.E.: Son of Darius, king of Persia who led a vast army against Greece and won the battle of Thermopylae but was eventually defeated
524-459 B.C.E: The Athenian, who persuaded Athens to build a navy and then led it to victory over the Persians; told the Athenians to abandon Athens.
554-489 B.C.E: Athenian general who defeated the Persians at Marathon.
Athenian aristocrat whose leadership contributed to Athens' political and cultural supremacy in Greece; helped thetes gain rights in Athens; strategos for 15 years, made the Acropolis and Parthenon. Made an alliance with Persia
496-406 B.C.E; Athenian; one of the great tragedians of ancient Greece.
525-456 B.C.E; Greek tragedian; the father of Greek tragic drama.
purification of emotions
446-386 B.C.E: an Athenian dramatist remembered for his comedies.
one of the greatest tragic dramatists of ancient Greece - Athenian
Milesian Philosophers
conveyed their ideas in verse, studied the physical world
Athenian women lived with men but had a lower status than their wives; sex workers
foreigners that came to Athens and had some privileges of citizenship
Athenian leader that was the successor of Pericles, exiled Thucydides; didn't accept Sparta's peace treaty. Died in battle 5 years later.
Athenian that killed all men, enslaved women and children in Melos.
Ancient Athenian aristocrat and general in the Peloponnesian War; proposed to attack Syracuse, led the attack and lost the battle; exiles democracy in Athens.
Thirty Tyrants
Spartan oligarchy in Athens
469-399 B.C.E: Athenian philosopher; teacher of Plato and Xenophon; executed; said that humans can determine things through reason, was not a pro-teacher; ardent patriot, method of instruction was conversation, pupils wrote down his teachings, said he knew nothing, focused on practical ethics, "the unexamined life is not worth living,", a product of Athenian democracy.
Greek philosopher and mathematician who proved the Pythagorean theorem; considered to be the first true mathematician.
group that established key properties of odd and even numbers.
9th century BCE Aegean
Contact between Greeks and Phoenicians intensified
10th Cen BCE
Greeks copied Phoenicians ships to travel through the Mediterranean
Greeks Moved to Where?
Western Coast of Anatolia, Greeks named Ionia.
8th + 7th c. BCE
Small scale Greek trading ventures turned into full fledged mercantile settlements
Where did Greeks migrate to?
Southern Italy called "Magna Graecia" Greater Greece.
Where was Corinth located?
The land bridge between Attica and the Peloponnesus.
680 BCE Olympia
New sporting event; A four horse chariot race, became popular in the Roman Empire
Until the 6th c BCE
The aristocratic classes controlled most Greek polies.
621 BCE
Drakon sought to regulate violence through harsh punishments.
Sparta subjugated and enslaved the indigenous people
The helots revolted, briefly threading Spartan hegemony
Spartiates declined from 10,000 to what in the 7th c. BCE-4th c. BCE?
6th century BCE
Lydia was absorbed by the Persian empire
How where the Greeks different from others?
Individual and culture Participatory government Artistic innovation Powers of the mind
Spartan Flaws
Demographic; Spartiates declined to about 1,000 Placed little value on the written record Made human observations(starting point of knowledge) They sought physical explanations (movements of the heavens) They marginalized the role of God (in the natural world)
Challenge of the Persian wars
Male dominance competition Individual Achievement Freedom and Responsibility
Ionian Revolt (499-494 BC)
Herodotus probe the long term and immediate causes of the Persian wars
What did the Spartans refuse?
To send their army to help fight the Persians
Who sent 25 ships/crews to the Island of Euboea
Athens and Eritrea
The rebellious polis were finally overwhelmed by the vastly superior might of Persia
Summer of 490BCE
A punitive expedition of 20,000 soldiers crossed the Aegean
The Battle of Marathon and its Aftermath
Persians landed in Africa Polis of Plataea offered the Athenians Aid Athenians Won!!! Persians retaliated with a bigger force.
Xerxes Invasion
Greeks delayed Persians at pass of Thermopylae, Spartan king Leonidas and 300 troops held off Persians for 2 days
Darius the Great died and was succeeded by Xerxes Almost Attacked Greece to avenge his fathers shame 150,000-300,000 set out of Sordis crossed the Hellespont.
Who formed the Hellenic League?
Sparta, Athens, Corinth, and thirty cities
August 480BCE
Persian outnumbered Greek allies under leadership of Sparta. Athenian ships greatly reduced Persians numbers
Major five battles between Greece and Sparta
Marathon Artemisium Salamis Plateau Thermopylae
470 BCE
Athens crushed those who tried to break from Delian League
Who had a stronger navy?
Who was stronger on land?
Typhus epidemic killed Pericles
Sparta offered peace which was rejected by Creon
Thucidides exiled for traitors for task of lioerrotting city under Spartan control
Alkibiades convinces Athenians to attack Syracuse in Sicily
Citizens voted democracy out of existence, was replaced by oilgarchy of 400 members
Who did Sparta create an alliance with
The Persians
A naval victory at Arginusae ended in a sudden storm. Prevented the Athenians commanders from rescuing sailors.
Athenian fleet was destroyed, without ships, the Athenians could neither feed themselves nor defend the city Democracy was restored to Athens
Corinth and Thebes wanted what?
All Athens to be killed. Spartans suggested that only men are killed, women and children become slaves.
Athens had restored a semblance of democratic governance. Persian empire increased its naval presence in the Aegean
Persian conquest of Ionia, many Milesian philosophers fled to southern Italy.
Care and act for others because they're human Dangerous; Relativism, Logic, Justice
"The un examined life is not worth living" Socrates
He knew nothing but chose to learn
Socrates dies, deemed a traitor; Disloyal to the Gods Disloyal to the polis Corrupting the youth Was a martyr
Athens 399BCE
End of the Peloponnesian war, Athens was shook and violent internal upheavals from defeat.
Motives for Colonization
Land Hunger Trade Political unrest overpopulation Brought Greeks into contact with Phoenicians, Egyptians and other non-Greek speakers/ Barbarians