Enzymes and Cellular Respiration - Biology 10

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53 Terms
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Protein that speeds up a chemical reactions in a living thing by decreasing the activation energy
Substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
Active Site
Part of an enzyme where the chemical reaction occurs
Activation Energy
Energy needed to start a reaction
Reactant that enters an enzyme's active site
Substance produced in a chemical reaction
Enzyme-Substrate Complex
Temporary complex formed when a substrate binds to its enzyme
Chemical Reaction
Process where one substance changes to produce a different substances
Competitive Inhibitor
Substance that reduces an enzyme's activity by entering the active site, blocking the substrate
Non-Competitive Inhibitor
Substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location that's not the active site, changing its shape
Optimal Temperature
Enzyme functions at neither extremely high nor low temperatures
Optimal pH
Enzyme functions at neither extremely high nor low pH levels
An enzyme changes shape so it can no longer speed up a reaction
Induced Fit
Model where the substrate enters the enzyme, the active site of an enzyme changes shape to better bind to the substrate
Lock and Key Model
Model of the enzyme that shows the substrate fitting perfectly into the active site
Purpose of Cellular Respiration
Turn consumed glucose into ATP
Aerobic Respiration
Requires oxygen
Anaerobic Respiration
Does not require oxygen
Who performs Aerobic Respiration?
Animals, plants, and some bacteria
Who performs Anaerobic Respiration?
Fungi and lactic acid fermentation in animals and some bacteria
Cellular Respiration Equation
C6H12O6 + 6O2 --- 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
Cellular Respiration Equation in Words
Glucose + Oxygen --- Carbon Dioxide + Water + ATP
Where are the Products of Photosynthesis in Cellular Respiration?
The Reactants
Where are the Reactants of Photosynthesis in Cellular Respiration?
The Products
Where does the Glucose in Cellular Respiration come from?
Consuming food for animals or making
How do plants obtain Glucose?
How do animals obtain Glucose?
By eating plants or animals
Alcoholic Fermentation
Anaerobic process where yeasts and other microorganisms break down sugars to form carbon dioxide and ethanol
Lactic Acid Fermentation
Anaerobic process breaking down carbohydrates that produces lactic acid
Most Efficient Respiration Type
Why do muscles burn when exerting energy?
With not enough oxygen reaching the muscles to make energy, the body must switch to anaerobic respiration, which produces the burning lactic acid
What process does Anaerobic and Aerobic Respiration have in common?
Which respiration processes do humans do?
When needed, humans can do anaerobic respiration, but mostly do aerobic respiration
Reactants of Glycolysis
Products of Glycolysis
2 Pyruvate, NADH, and 2 ATP
What happens to the 2 Pyruvate after Glycolysis?
The Pyruvate is turned into Acetyl-CoA for the Krebs Cycle
What happens to the NADH after Glycolysis?
NADH moves on to the electron transport chain
Where does Glycolysis occur?
The Cytoplasm
What organisms do the Krebs Cycle?
Plants, animals, and some bacteria
Krebs Cycle Reactants
Acetyle-CoA with Oxygen
Krebs Cycle Products
2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, and Water
What are NADH and FADH2 used for?
NADH and FADH2 move on to the electron transport chain
Where does the Krebs Cycle occur?
The Matrix of the Mitochondria
What organisms do the Electron Transport Chain?
Plants and Animals
Electron Transport Chain Reactants
NADH, FADH2, Hydrogen Protons, ADP, and Oxygen
Electron Transport Chain
Chain of proteins where electrons move across powering the creation of a concentration gradient which pushes protons through the ATP-Synthase
How much ATP does the Electron Transport Chain generate?
How much ATP does Chemiosmosis generate?
32 - 34
Electron Transport Chain Final Electron Acceptor
What does the Electron Transport Chain do to Electrons?
Breaks the large amounts of free-energy into smaller parts to be released in a more manageable way
Protons moving from the Matrix to the Intermembrane Space, with the power of electrons, to then go through ATP-Synthase
Carbon Sinks
The ocean, atmosphere, soil, and plantsCa
Carbon Sources
Burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, volcanic eruptions, and respiration