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Chapter 5, WTP 10-14

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63 Terms
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bicameral
having two separate lawmaking chambers
republic
a government in which citizens rule through elected representatives
ordinance
a law or regulation
clause
a special condition in a formal document
Northwest Territory
Created by the Northwest Ordinance Lands north of Ohio River and east of Mississippi River to be divided into 3-5 smaller territories
depreciated
to fall in value
Richard Henry Lee
President of the Congress who urged that "the rights of property be clearly defined" by the government
Robert Morris
Philadelphia merchant who led a department of finance Proposed a 5% tax on imported goods to help pay national debt; was denied after Rhode Island said no.
John Adams
Sent by Congress in to discuss problems about Britain occupying several forts in the Great Lakes region
Articles of Confederation
A plan for new central government Established a weak central government "a firm league of friendship" in which each state retained "its sovereignty, freedom and independence." (WTP 11) nation's first constitution which created our first national government
Land Ordinance of 1785
Set up a process to survey and sell lands north of Ohio River Divided area into townships 6x6 miles long Each section would be sold at an action for at least a dollar/acre
Land Act of 1800
Made it easier for people to buy land in the territory A person required to buy at least 320 acres for 2$ per acre Buyer could pay half of money at time of purchase and send remainder in four yearly payments
depression
a period when economic activity slows and unemployment increases
manumission
the freeing of individual enslaved persons
convention
meeting
amend
to change or revise
Virginia Plan
Called for a strong national government Created a government with three branches: two-house legislature, chief executive chosen by legislature, and court system Legislature power to tax, regulate trade, and veto state laws Voters elect members of lower house of legislature would choose the upper house members Number of representatives would be proportional in both houses to the population of each state
proportional
having the proper size in relation to other objects or items
New Jersey Plan
Legislature would have single house Each state would have one vote Congress power to set taxes, regulate trade, and elect an executive bbranch of >1 person
compromise
a settlement of a dispute by each side giving up some demands
Great Compromise
Proposed different representation in the two-house legislature Upper house (Senate) would have two members, meaning equal representation Lower house (House of Representatives) would be proportional to state's population (WTP 13) Congress would have two houses; Senate and House of Representatives Membership in House would be based on proportional representation Membership in Senate would be based on equal representation
Three-Fifths Compromise
Every 5 enslaved persons would count as three in a state's population Southern states had a large population of slaves, which would give more seats to the South but also raise taxes
Daniel Shays
Former Continental Army captain who forced courts in the western part of Massachusetts to close Goal was to stop judges from legally taking away farmers' lands
George Washington
Attended the Philadelphia convention after hearing news about Shays' Rebellion Was able to guarantee public trust after attending convention with Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
A delegate who attended the Philadelphia convention Was able to guarantee public trust after attending convention with George Washington
James Madison
Virginia planter who supported the reform "Father of the Constitution" Kept a record of the Philadelphia Convention's work Largely created the Virginia Plan
Alexander Hamilton
New York lawyer who supported the reform
Gouverneur Morris
Polished the final draft of the Constitution
Edmund Randolph
A delegate who refused to sign the Constitution Believed the final document strayed too far from his own beliefs
William Paterson
Opponents of Virginia Plan rallied with ___ and he presented another plan which amended the Articles of Confederation Argued that the Convention should not deprive smaller states of the equality they had under the Articles
George Mason
Proposed a bill of rights to be included in the Constitution which was defeated Refused to sign Constitution because it did not have a bill of rights
Shays' Rebellion
Led by Daniel Shays Was started after farmers could not pay their taxes and debts after economic troubles and state officials threw them in jail Seized weaponry in the federal arsenal and killed 4 farmers (WTP 11) A dramatic series of events that convinced many Americans that it was time for a change Led by Daniel Shays to seize the federal arsenal and frighten many property owners
Constitutional Convention
Called by Hamilton in Philadelphia to discuss trade issues and the Constitution 55 delegates attended Native Americans, African Americans, and women were not represented at the convention Produced an entirely new constitution
tradition
longstanding cultural belief and practice
natural rights
life, liberty, and property
federalism
a form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and state governments
legislative branch
lawmaking branch of government
executive branch
branch of government that executes, or carries out, the law; headed by the president
judicial branch
the branch of government that includes the courts that settle disputes and questions of the law
Electoral College
special group of electors chosen to vote for president and vice president
checks and balances
a system by which each branch of government limits power of other branches
amendment
a change, correction, or improvement added to a document
ratification
approve something
John Locke
English philosopher Wrote that all people are entitled to certain natural rights; life, liberty, and property
Baron de Montesquieu
French writer Wrote The Spirit of Laws; declared that the powers of government should be separated and balanced
Federalists
People who supported the new Constitution Took this name to stress that Cons. would create system of federalism
Anti-Federalists
People who opposed the Constitution Wrote essays called the Anti-Federalist Papers Argued that a strong national gov. would take away liberties
George Washington and Benjamin Franklin (Lesson 3)
Federalists
James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay (Lesson 3)
Wrote a series of essays explaining and defending the constitution which were the Federalist papers
Patrick Henry
Claimed the Constitution did not place enough limits on government power during ratification
legislative supremacy
governments in which most of the power was given to the legislature
petition
make a formal request of
popular sovereignty
the people are the highest authority
veto
refuse to sign
national government
What the founders believed was needed to unify the states and to conduct war Could also control trade and manage conflicts among the states
Northwest Ordinance
Most important law passed by Congress under the Articles Gave people in NW lands right to organize own governments
equal representation
each state having the same number of representatives in Congress
proportional representation
basing the number of representatives in Congress on the population of a state
Virginia Plan
A plan for national government drafted by James Madison Proposed a strong national government Two governments would govern people National government would have power to make and enforce laws and collect own taxes Divided government into legislative, executive, judicial branches
fugitive slave clause
persons that escape from slavery to a state where slavery was prohibited should be returned
tariff
tax on imported or exported goods or a list or system that describes such taxes
three-fifths clause
slaves are counted as 3/5 of a person contributing to population
Magna Carta
placed limits on the power of the monarch