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Art history test 3 but not the whole test just extra stuff I thought might be helpfull to know

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pathos
Emotional, in philosophy is often refer to as the appeal to emotion, or an emotional argument.
how did the Greeks shower?
They covered themselves in olive oil and then scrapped it off, as depicted in the scraper by Lysippos.
Roman Marble copies
The romans made marble copies of Greek bronze sculptures,
Late classical period
Was a difficult time for the Greeks. featured more humanization of the figures. People are now depicted as 8 heads tall. before they were 7
plato
ancient Athenian philosopher; pupil of Socrates; teacher of Aristotle Plato spoke many about the theoretical.
aristotle
one of the greatest of the ancient Athenian philosophers; pupil of Plato; teacher of Alexander the Great. He was more concerned about ethics and justice. He was concerned about the real and practical. "Courage is not running into battle without Armour"
Eudaimonia
Satisfaction over ones whole life.
socrates
ancient Athenian philosopher; teacher of Plato and Xenophon. Symbolic of the willingness to die for ones beliefs. Because he called into question the Greek pantheon. was called the gadfly of Athena.
canon
an ideal form, or governing set of principles, norms, or standards. Was in the greeks that people were 7 heads, which did change later.
heraclitus
a presocratic Greek philosopher who said that fire is the origin of all things and that permanence is an illusion as all things are in perpetual flux. Referred to as the weeping philosopher. Was most interested in apposing forces.
Stoicism
they believed that reason and endurance were the highest forms of virtue; to be in complete control of all of ones emotions. "the endurance of pain or hardship without the display of feelings and without complaint."
Were where most bronze statues found, and why?
under water, because otherwise they were melted down to be used for other things.
What big differences are there between bronze and marble statues?
Bronze is stronger so could be made for more intricate statues. Though we have less that survived. Bronze statues do not have as much support. Marble statues often had things on them to ad stability. Ex. Pillers to hold up arms.
What important shift does the Kritios boy Show?
It shows are going form the ideal to the real.
pediment
a triangular gable between a horizontal entablature and a sloping roof
symposium
a meeting or conference for the public discussion of some topic especially one in which the participants form an audience and make presentations
doric
o Doric does not have decorative drum. o The shaft of post does not have a base. o The lintel part has triglyphs, three marks in proportion.  Also has portions for sculptures.
ionic
o Ionic has base to its pilar. Thinner. o Has no triglyphs just room for sculptures and carvings.
greek temples were
Houses for gods
Arcayic
The style in which people were presented with that weird smile to show that they were human. It was not there to show any sort of emotion.
Hoplite
Farmer by day but a soldier when needed
polis
city state
Corbeled archway
roman arch
a round arch drawn from a single center
Keystone
Cyclopian Masonry
huge, roughly-cut stone blocks forming the massive fortification walls of Tiryns and other Mycenean sites. Boulders so large that Ancient Greeks believed they couldn’t have been done by humans.
Citadel
Little city
Dry fresco vs True Fresco
Dry fresco's = when the paint was added on top of the already made wall. True fresco = paint is added while the wall is still wet. the paint is part of the wall.
Why were the Minoans "Hippies of the ancient world"?
They were maybe more matriarchal. All of their art had to do with life and living. Even their funerary art was about the person's life, not the afterlife. They often feature "play" in their art. Art had a focus on culture and nature. Not so much war. Palace was made to be a public gathering space; it was made for the people.
Violin figures
the Cycladic style of figures in which they are shaped like violins.
Wet drapery style
cloth that appears to cling to the body in animated folds. It reveals the contours of the form beneath
The Hellenistic period translates roughly to what?
In the greek manor, or like the greeks.
What did Hellenistic art focus on?
the depiction of emotions, and realism. • in some sense, an attempt to expand what it meant to be human- not just ideal, but real • The sheer craftsmanship/attention to detail, is why many people look to this period as the best of the greeks. It was art brought down to earth.
Why is the Laocoon piece important?
1. impeccable craftsmanship. 2. it impacted artists like Michelangelo. 3. Changed the way artists did sculpture from the moment it was dug up.
Why are many marble sculptures missing limbs?
Many bodies were made in quarries and then master artists would sculpt the heads and arms. They were more delicate and often had wood in them to give them support. When the wood rotted the arms would break off. Thye were also buried by the early Christians and many were broken just from being in the dirt.
contrapposto
that like lean they have, that has the realistic thing. Like how when you step on one leg your shoulder dips.
beehive tomb, tholos tomb
a tomb that looks like a beehive.
How do you tell the difference between early classical and late classical?
Classical period was marked by an increase focus on the real and more serious expressions. no more dopey smiles like archaic sculpture. Early classical period work had more realistic bodies then archaic, but everything was still very ideal. Both Early and late mainly kept very straight, series faces regardless of the situation the figure was in. Late classical features elegant elongation of the human form, and the introduction of the female nude. The statues also became even more realistic in there figure.
Hellenistic
the last period in Greek art. Was considered the best. Focused on emotion and realism. Went from the ideal to the real.
Archaic
not very realistic. The earliest period in Greek sculpture. The figures had these weird smiles to show that they were human, but not to show any type of emotion
Geometric/Orientalizing
reference to the spread of Near Eastern and Egyptian ideas, motifs, and other cultural elements to Greece and the rest of the Mediterranean world. Thing of the stances that statues would take in Greece and how the early pieces have the same poses as Egyptian statues.
Symmetria
derives from the notion that the parts of a work will be proportionate to each other and, hence, to the whole Doe a while this mean that people were 7 heads tall but they switched to being 8 heads tall in late classical.
Metope
a square space between triglyphs in a Doric frieze.
Triglyph
a tablet in a Doric frieze with three vertical grooves. Triglyphs alternate with metopes.
Gigantomachy
one of the most popular myths in Greece, is a representation of battles between the Olympian gods and Giants in antiquity. According to the myth, the Giants attacked the gods, but the Olympians learned that they could only emerge victorious if a mortal helped them.
caryatid
a supporting column carved in the shape of a person.
Krater
ancient Greek vessel used for diluting wine with water.
Stamnos
stamnos (plural stamnoi) is a type of Greek pottery used to store liquids. It is much squatter than an amphora and has two stubby handles
amphora
an ancient jar with two handles and a narrow neck; used to hold oil or wine
Repousee
a metalworking technique in which a malleable metal is shaped by hammering from the reverse side to create a design in low relief.
Pediment
a triangular gable between a horizontal entablature and a sloping roof