Gonzalez-Rodiles APWH Unit 4

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Caravel 4.1
A new type of ship that had Lateen sails on 2 or 3 masts. It was primarily used in Portugal and Spain for long voyages at great speed from the 15th to 17th centuries. LO 1) Cross-culture interactions brought the idea of lateen sails to Europe which allowed for new types of ships to be created that improved trade and travel.
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Lateen Sail 4.1
A ship sail originally used by Arab sailors in the Indian Ocean in the shape of a triangle that was a pivotal piece of technology. It allowed for travel in different directions because it could catch the wind on either side of the ship. LO 1) Cross-culture interactions brought the sails to Europe and when it was used with square sails, it allowed sailors to successfully travel through large bodies of water therefore expanding trade routes and exploration.
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Bartolomeus Dias 4.2
A portuguese explorer who sailed around the southern tip of Africa, the Cape of Good Hope, in 1488, into waters he did not know. He returned home after fearing that if he continued to push eastward he would face mutiny. LO 2) Portugal's interests of the state and interest of explorers were closely tied. They would send out ships to explore land leading to the expansion of maritime exploration.
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Nationalism 4.2
The loyalty of people to their common culture, traditions, ethnicity, geographic territory, and the idea of self-rule. LO 2) Japan closed off its borders to preserve its culture.
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Prince Henry the Navigator 4.2
European(Portuguese) monarch in 1394-1460 who went on an expedition in search of an all-water route to the east as well as for African gold. Portugal began importing enslaved Africans by sea instead of overland sea trade under him. LO 2) He was the first European monarch to sponsor seafaring expeditions.
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Vasco de Gama 4.2
A Portuguese explorer who sailed farther east in Diaz landed in India in 1498. He claimed the territory for Portugal in India. The ports in India were crucial in expanding Portugal's trade in the Indian Ocean. LO 2) Portugal sponsored maritime exploration allowing for the Portuguese to gain ports in South Asia for trading expanding maritime exploration in Portugal.
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Asante Kingdom 4.4
An African Kingdom whose growth was supported by the expansion of maritime trading networks. Their participation in the trade led to an increase in their influence. LO 5) The Portuguese explorer Vasco de Gama invaded African states expanding the Portuguese Empire. Additionally, African kingdoms increased their influence by participating in trade.
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British East India Company 4.4
A power that established trading posts in India. This company had begun a commercial relationship with the Mughal Empire in the 17th century. Great Britain competed for power with France and their victory drove the French out of India. LO 5) Great Britain expanded by establishing small forts on the coast and focusing on profiting through trade which limited the power of the Mughal Empire.
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Columbian Exchange 4.3
Interactions between the linked Eastern and Western Hemispheres where they shared disease, foods, and animals. LO 4) A cause of the exchange was the expansion of exploration and colonization of the Americas by Europe. The effect on the Western Hemisphere was deforestation, soil depletion, millions of deaths among native american populations, and improved communication and methods for hunting and warfare. On the other hand, the effect on the Eastern Hemisphere was better nutrition, increase in population, increased health risks, new types of textiles, and ethnic diversity.
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Dutch East India Company 4.4
A dutch trading company established in the southeast Indies and tried to extract raw materials in the Southeast Indies. LO 4) A cause for the Columbian Exchange were companies attempting to extract raw materials from "new" and resource full lands.
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Kingdom of Kongo 4.4
A kingdom in Africa that the Portuguese went to and had missionaries in. The expansion of maritime trading networks supported the growth of this state. Their participation in trade led to an increase in their influence. LO 5) The kingdom expanded their power by increasing their participation in trade.
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Chattel Slavery 4.4
The most common form of slavery known to the Americas. By law and custom, African American slaves were the personal property of their owners and allowed people (who were considered legal property) to be bought, sold, and owned forever used by European powers. LO 6) Coerced labor changed as human rights decreased and landowners explored enslaved persons as their own property.
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Encomienda System 4.4
A labor system established by the Spanish in the early 1500s to gain gold and other resources of the Americas. Landowners compelled indigenous people to work for them in exchange for food and shelter. LO 6) The Encomienda system continued to use the landowner-serf relationship in the serfdom in Europe's manorial system.
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Hacienda System 4.4
Rose when landowners developed agriculture on their own lands (wheat, fruit, vegetables, and sugar). They used coerced labor to work the fields. LO 6) Continuity of using coerced labor for agriculture.
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Indentured Servitude 4.4
A form of labor used in Europe and Asia for farming and craft labor. They were recruited by plantation owners. The employer paid for transport to a new location and the individual worked without pay for up to seven years then they became free laborers. LO 6) Changed from being completely tied to the land with no freedom to move at will (serf) to being able to be free after 7 years of work.
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Mita System 4.4
Used by Spanish authorities in Peru in which young men were required to devote a certain amount of labor to public work projects. Villagers were compelled to send a percentage of their male population to do the dangerous work in the mines for a paltry wage (silver). LO 6) Continuity of the use of Mit'a system in the Inca territory.
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Omani merchants 4.4
Europeans wanted to be involved in the Indian Ocean trade but had conflicts with the Omani merchants which encouraged Europeans nations to finance expeditions like Christopher Columbus' in search of water routes east. LO 6) Economic systems shifted to fund more exploration and colonization and shifted to trading with silver as a global currency.
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Plantation Economy 4.4
The inefficient economy that was centered around slavery in South America where plantations were used to grow large amounts of cash crops. LO 7) Slavery continued to be used in agriculture but slavery increased in usage in the Americas.
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Atlantic System 4.5
A complex Atlantic trading system that transported goods, wealth, and people as well as their cultures and ideas. LO 9) The transportation of enslaved persons began to be transported more and more in the Ocean trade. Ocean trade became more important the land trade.
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Join-Stock Company 4.5
Owned by investors who bought stock or shares in them whose formation aided in the rise of the extended global economy. People invested capital in such companies and shared both the profits and risks of exploration and trading ventures. LO 8) It allowed states to consolidate and maintain/grow their power by allowing for the development of maritime empires and the resources of distant lands with limited risk to investors.
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Mercantilism 4.5
The belief is that trade should be protected by the government and that it increases wealth. Increased exports with lower imports for more profit. Thinks there are a finite amount of resources. Exploit colonies to benefit the mother country. Coerced labor. LO 8) They maintained and consolidated power by using trade to increase wealth.
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Muslim-European Rivalry 4.5
Muslims were wealthy and were very important when it came to the Indian Ocean trade. Because Europe couldn't compare to Muslims, they had conflicts with one another over the trade routes. LO 8) Europe maintained their power by increasing their importance in maritime trade.
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Vodun 4.5
African religions in the Americas were syncretic with different religious beliefs and practices. The word means spirit or deity and the belief originated with African peoples of Dahomey, Kongo, and Yoruba who were enslaved and living in present-day Haiti. LO 11) Syncretic religions spread African religious traditions such as drumming, dancing, and belief in spirits through the Americas.
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Maratha Conflict 4.6
A Hindu warrior group that fought the Mughal Empire from 1680-1707 creating the Maratha Empire that effectively ended Mughal rule in India. LO 12) Revolts in Mughal India allowed for the development and rise of new empires/states.
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Maroon Societies 4.6
A member of any community in the Caribbean who were descendants of escaped slaves or formerly enslaved Africans who gained their freedom by running away in former Spanish territories (Now British territory). LO 12) Slaves escaped from landowners affecting their power and giving more power to enslaved persons.
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Boyars 4.7
Russian elites resisted the expansionist policies of Ivan IV. LO 13) The boyars and hierarchy of Russia were similar and maintained some aspects but were also modified; tsar, boyars, merchant, and peasants.
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Casta System 4.7
A racial hierarchy by Spain and Portugal conquistadors used in the Iberian Peninsula that classified families based on race and mixed-race families. LO 13) The racial hierarchy allowed for the exploitation of the people and region with the introduction of new laws that maintain the power of the Spanish and Portuguese in the region.
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Jewish Migrations 4.7
Spanish Jews migrated to North Africa and the Middle East from Spain and Portugal. LO 13) Acceptance of Jews in the Ottoman Empire. Many states started to help the ethnic and religious diversity of their citizens (Mughal and Ottoman)
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