Chapter 13- World War 2

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America and the World B

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World War 2 dates
September 1, 1939-September 2, 1945
General Facts about WW2
Largest and deadliest war, fought on land, sea, and air, fought mostly on 3 continents- Europe, Africa, Asia
"Good War"
A war between good and evil to save our freedoms, way of life
extreme pride in one's country over individual rights
aggressive land take over
Aggressive build up of a military that gains control of the government
political philosophy that exalts nation above the individual, stands for an autocratic government headed by a dictator, severe economic and social control and forcible suppression of any opposition
Autocratic government
leader handles laws, decisions, and everything
Treaty of Versailles
signed at the end of world war 1
Who was required to take blame in WW2
Four main terms of the treaty of Versailles
1. War Guilt Cause- Germany should accept all blame for starting WW1 2. Reparations- Germany had to pay for damage caused by the war 3. Disarmament- Germany was allowed to have a small army, six naval ships, no tanks, no air force, no submarines, Rhineland was de-militarized 4. Territorial causes- land was taken away from Germany and given to other countries, union with Austria was forbidden
Causes of WW2
1. Treaty of Versailles 2. Hitler's aggressive actions 3. Failure of Appeasement 4. Failure of League of Nations
How did Germany feel about the Treaty
very unhappy, wanted revenge, humiliated, angry, some thought it was too harsh
Hitler's political ideas in his book Mein Kampf
Devotion to state above self Goal to unite Germans of Europe in a great empire Modeled after Ancient Rome Believe in racial superiority believed Jews threatened the purity of Aryan race and said no intermarriage Lebensraum
Mein Kampf
Hitler's book written in jail meaning "my struggles"
what did Hitler say he would do to the treaty
Rip it up, overturn it
Hitler's background
Born in Austria, mother was abused by father, came to Germany to fight in WW1, was considered patriotic and courageous for his commitment, had a talent for public speaking
Hitler's rise to power
Political and economic instability from WW1 fueled the rise of power New political party- National Socialist Party of German Workers pro NAZI Party In 1923 he organized an effort to seize power of Germany, Supposed to serve 5 years, but only served 9 months
President Von Hindenburg
president of Germany who appointed Hitler as chancellor, when he died Hitler made himself dictator for life
Night of the Long Knives
purge of the people who did not agree with Hitler
What did Hitler secretly began to do after becoming Chancellor
He secretly began building up the military, ships, weapons, and air force
March of 1936 Hitler ordered German troops where
Rhineland along the Rhine river
Hitler made a tripartite alliance with what two others country
Italy at first, then Japan joined to make the pact of steel
Leader of Italy
Benito Mussolini
Leader of Japan
Hideki Tojo
Mach of 1938 German troops marched where to get their land back
Marched to Austria, very peaceful no shots where fired, most people agreed and were happy with the takeover
union with Germany
What was the German speaking part of Czechoslovakia
to join/add
Aggressive move Hitler made in March of 1939
Invaded the rest of Czech
sitting down and negotiating with someone to give in
Neville Chamberlain
Prime minister of Great Britain
What did Neville Chamberlain think about the Treaty of Versailles
Treated Germany badly, thought giving into Hitler would prevent war
Who signed the Munich agreement
Leaders of Germany, Britain, France, and Italy
What did the Munich agreement say
Sudetenland would be given to Germany and no further claims could be made, no agression
Munich agreement was viewed was viewed as what to other countries
A triumph example of securing peace, success
Did Hitler keep his word to the Munich Agreement
No, he invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia
Was Chamberlain's policy of appeasement a success or a failure
A failure, because everyone knew that Hitler had ignored the Treaty of Versailles, and kept invading more places
Is it wise to negotiate with a dictator
No, because a dictator does what they want and will do anything to get it. They do not care how others feel.
What was the League of Nations
An international organization set up in 1919 to help keep world peace
Why did the league of nations fail
-Not all countries joined -Had No Power: main weapon was to ask member countries to stop trading with an aggressive country -Had no Army: Soldiers were to be supplied by member countries, but no one wanted to supply -Unable to Act quickly: only met 4 times a year, so if a crisis popped up no one could help
Characteristics of a Totalitarian Dictator
-Promises to return country to greatness -Dynamic speaking styles that enabled them to achieve influence over people -Stressed glory of the state over concerns of people -Willing to use violence to gain power -power and authority was to be unchallenged -allowed no elections or political parties -Believes the Nation becomes great through expanding Nation and claiming territory -Controlled Newspapers, schools, businesses -total control over daily life
Axis powers
Germany Japan Italy
Allied Powers
U.S.A Great Britain France Soviet Union China Canada
Neutral Countries
Italy Switzerland Sweden Portugal Spain Turkey Ireland
German-Soviet non-aggression pact
Hitler won Joseph Stalin's agreement to stay out of Germany's way as it continues to expand In return Hitler promised not to attack the Soviet Union and give Poland
Immediate cause of WW1
The German invasion of Poland causing France and Britain to declare war
"lightening war" - swift surprise attacks combining infantry, tanks, and aircraft to quickly overwhelm the enemy
German Tanks
The Phony War
The Winter of 1939-40, a long period of time where there was an apparent quiet through the winter which American press names the Phony War Hitler was making plans
Hitler's purpose of taking Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg
to improve his access to the Atlantic Ocean
Why did France have a false sense of security
France felt secure but they should not have, they thought Germany was going to enter through the Maginot line but they surprise France and do not
Ardennes Forest
A forest that was rugged along the Northern border of Belgium and France
Maginot Line
A whole string of defended bunkers and forts along the borders of Germany and France
Where did Germany come through to invade France in 1940
Ardennes Forest
Hitler ordered the advance of troops to stop Why
He wanted soldiers out of bombing range of his Luftwaffe
a sea port where the troops were positioned to prepare for battle and develop a evacuation plan
Operation Dynamo
code name for evacuation of allied troops from Dunkirk
What ships were used to ferry the thousands of soldiers across the English channel since Britain did not have enough
British citizens used their own fishing boats, yachts, paddle steamers, and other sea worthy boats
After evacuation at Dunkirk where did Germany go next
Germany invaded France, Paris fell days later, France surrendered
Winston Churchill
Prime minister of Great Britain starting in May of 1940, most famous for helping save Britain
English Channel
Narrow 23 mile stretch of water between Great Britain and France
"Someone Wake the Sleeping Giant" who and what does it mean
the sleeping giant was the United States and they wanted to ask us for help but we were not getting involved
Operation Sea Lion
Hitler's plan code name was an airborne assault to take out the Royal Air Force, landing on the South Coast of Britain
Royal Air Force- British air force
German Air Force
British Advantage
Use of radar to detect planes coming in Home Turf so they could go down and refuel then go back up
German Advantage
A lot more more planes
What was the Blitz
Hitler bombed major cities and civilians in order to break the rescue of British 76 days of continuous bombing After 3 months Hitler was forced to call it off
London Tube
Unground subway system
the desire to avoid involvement in foreign wars
Who were Isolationists
Republicans and Democrats Most college students Most of Congress President Hoover Father Coughlin Most Americans Heroes like aviator Charles Lindberg
Who was not an Isolationists
Reasons for American Isolationism
WW1 had been costly in lives, FEARFUL of another war People were burdened by the Great Depression, FOCUSED on economic depression This was not our war, people felt it was a FOREIGN WAR not ours to handle
not aid to one side or another
Neutrality Acts
Set up to prevent us from going to war 1. banned sale of arms, ammunition, or any tools of war to warring nations 2. Prohibited loaning money to warring countries 3. Made it illegal to transport weapons or passengers to warring nations aboard American ships
Cash and Carry
Countries at war could purchase American goods as long as they paid cash and picked them up at American ports
Destroyers for Bases
Agreement between the U.S and U.K. made on Sept. 2, 1940, where we gave 50 old destroyer ships to the British Navy in exchange for building Military bases on British Islands
Lend Lease (arsenal of democracy)
FDR made a speech to congress declaring his goal of making the U.S a arsenal of democracy FDR wanted the U.S to provide weapons to our allies so democracy could be saved in Europe
A place where weapons are stored
Why did FDR want to provide weapons to Allied countries and not remain isolationist
if the other countries lost their democracy so would the U.S
Atlantic Charter
Roosevelt and Churchill met secretly on a ship off the coast of New Foundland, Canada Drafted a Charter stating the goals and aims of the allies during WW2 in opposing Hitler Stating that U.S and Great Britain sought no territory, citizens of every country should be given freedom, right of self determination, should be restored where it was taken away, trade barriers lowered Charter mandated freedom of the seas, renounced the use of force to settle international disputes and called post war disarmament
What event led to the involvement of the U.S in WW2
The bombing of Pearl Harbor
Sunday December 7, 1941
Japanese fighter planes attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbor on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii
Japanese plan
destroy American Pacific Fleet so that Americans would not be able to fight back as Japan's armed forces spread across the South Pacific taking territory after territory
Admiral Yamamoto
responsible for planning pearl harbor
USS Arizona
A ship mashed by a bomb sunk within 9 minutes, killing many, still leaks oil slowly today
USS Oklahoma
A ship hit by a torpedo that capsized and slipped underwater
Pearl Harbor
A naval base out of Oahu, Hawaii
being famous for a shameful, disgraceful, horrible act
Did Congress vote war
All but one women
why did Hitler use the radio
brain washing weapon
Why were books burned
books that Hitler deemed opposition to the NAZIS or did not glorify war
What was going on in America of August of 1939
Worlds Fair in New York
Why did the world fair end
Germany invaded Poland
How did the U.S mobilize the Armed Forces
Government spending was sharply increased to equip and properly train our troops Military bases were established for training , located mostly in rural areas where there was plenty of space California had most bases The draft was expanded Americans were eager to defend their country so millions volunteered, signed up 16 million Americans would enter the armed forces
to get troops ready for action/war, prepare for war
In America who has the power to declare war
Who is the commander of chief of the armed forces and has the right to administer the war and make decisions in times of war?
President of the U.S
How were women involved
Join the military and took part in support roles which would free up more men 1. WAVES 2. WASP 3. WAC
Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service.. Navy program where women did clerical work that would otherwise have been required by men
Women's Air Force Service Pilots... Women tested and delivered aircraft
Women's Army Corps... largest women's unit, repaired equipment, worked as electricians, full fledged members of the army, did everything but combat
How did the U.S mobilize in industry
Many factories that made consumer goods were quickly converted to producing war goods... millions of new jobs were created and this is what ended the depression -The federal government spent tens of billions of dollars on weapons and war supplies in the months after Pearl harbor -America used assembly line techniques to produce ships at an astounding rate -Women went to work in factories and took men's jobs, very proud -The allies may have not won the war if it was not for American factories putting out the needed supplies to replace those tanks, aircraft, ships destroyed in battle
Liberty Ships
ships produced at astounding rates produced by an assembly line
Rosie the Riveter
a symbol representing working women during the war, symbol of the new women
pins, fasteners, bolts installed
How did the U.S mobilize in Science
Manhattan Project News about Nuclear fission traveled quickly from Europe to America U.S were testing the possibilities of generating power with uranium, tense and uncertain time for physics Albert Einstein warned America about dangers of Germany Set up an advisory committee on uranium America dropped 2 bombs on Japan to bring WW2 to an end
Manhattan project
the most important scientific program of WW2 a top secret project to build the atomic bomb, a weapon using energy released by splitting atoms
Advisory Committee on Uranium
started in New York city then was moved to Los Alamos, New Mexico built atomic bombs
J. Robert Oppenhiemer
American physicist won the race and is credited with developing the first atomic bomb
a sleeping giant had awakened and supplied not only its own troops and sailors but sent thousands of trucks, ships, and airplanes to other nations. America had indeed become the arsenal of democracy and capitalism proved it could produce better than any other system