World History Midterm Study Guide

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53 Terms
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an execution device that cut off people’s head; used during the French Revolution
Maximilien Robespierre
the leader of the Committee of Public Safety
the society of The Friends of the Constitution; a club during the French Revolution
a lower class Parisian Republican in the French Revolution
a land tax placed on the common people 
Old Regime
socio-political system which existed in most of Europe during the 18th Century
part of the upper class in the Third Estate; were upset that they had to pay taxes while the nobles did not
The Great Fear
a period of panic and riot by peasants
Tennis Court Oath
a vow taken by the Third Estate to stay together and to create a written constitution for France
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Men are born free, remain free, and are equal in rights
A general panic that took place at the start of the French Revolution as peasants armed themselves and attacked the house of nobles.
The Great Fear
What was the political and social system in France in the Late Middle Ages?
Old Regime
Wealthy members of the third estate that wanted to be a part of the second estate.
A time period of the French Revolution led by Robespierre when “enemies of the Revolution” were sought out and killed by the guillotine.
Reign of Terror
Who paid the most of the country’s taxes in France before the revolution?
3rd Estate
Who was the king of France before the French Revolution?
Louis XVI
 What type of government was popular during the Old Regime?
Absolute Monarchy
France’s economy was based primarily on what during the Old Regime?
Taxes paid by the 3rd Estate
What were 3 reasons France became bankrupt before the French Revolution?
The poor being unable to pay taxes, being involved in wars, deficit spending
New ideas that affected the creation of new governments in France and the United States were most directly influenced by what time period?
What were 3 long term causes of the French Revolution?
Old Regime, influence of the Enlightenment, absolutism
Why was King Louis XVI forced to call the Estates General in 1789?
Because France went bankrupt
How many votes did each Estate receive in the Estates General?
What percentage of the population was in each of the 3 levels of the Estates General?
1st- 0.5% 2nd- 1.5% 3rd- 98%
What did the Bastille represent in France?
The monarch’s abuse of power
After the failure of the Estates General, what did the Third Estate form on their own?
The National Assembly
What was the period from June 1793 to July 1794 in France, when many people were killed by the Guillotine?
Reign of Terror
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was most directly influenced by what historical time period?
The Enlightenment
What kind of jobs did the sans-culottes have?
craftsmen and apprentices, shopkeepers, clerks, and associated workers.
Why was Marie Antoniette hated by the French people?
She spent money that France didn’t have.
Who were emigres?
Nobles who fled the revolution
What was the goal for the Committee of Public Safety?

To defend the country and see to new developments of the legislative branch

What day does France celebrate Bastille Day?
July 14th
The percentage of land owned by each estate?
1st- 20% 2nd-20% 3rd-60%
What were 5 privileges of the 1st Estate?
no taxes, collecting all the taxes, having censorship of the press, control of education, and they were picked for political offices
List 5 burdens that the 3rd Estate had.
paying all taxes, being unable to make the money to pay taxes, no political power, forced road work, and had to pay feudal dues for the use of appliances.
Deficit spending
a government spending more money than it takes in from tax revenues.
What were some characteristics of “philosophes”?
They were secular in thinking, asked questions, and used reason and logic instead of religion and superstition.
The following were short term causes of the French Revolution,  give three examples of how each contributed: bankruptcy, Great Fear, Estates General.
\-Bankruptcy was caused by deficit spending and while changes, such as taxing the rich, were proposed they were turned down. \-The Great Fear was a terrible famine which cause hungry, impoverished peasants to revolt as they thought the rich were seeking out greater privileges, \-The Estates General was forced to be called because of France's bankruptcy. This set in motion a series of events that resulted in the abolition of the monarchy and a new socio-political system. 
Cahiers were a traditional list of grievances written by the people that asked for moderate changes.
How does an Absolute Monarch operate?
An Absolute Monarch has all the power and makes all the decisions.
What were the four periods of the French Revolution?
The four periods were, the National Assembly, the Legislative Assembly, the Convention, and the Directory.
What were 5 changes to government brought on by the National Assembly?
abolition of guilds and labor laws, the Constitution of 1791, the Declaration of the Rights of Man, equality for men, and some nobles leaving France
What did the “Civil Constitution of the Clergy” require?
church officials be elected by the people with salaries paid by the government
What were “democratic and undemocratic” features of The Constitution of 1791?
\- France becoming a limited monarchy and laws being created by the Legislative Assembly \- only taxpayers could vote and offices were reserved for land owners
Who were the main three leaders of the Jacobins?
Marat, Danton, Robespierre
Who were the “Girondins”?
moderates who represented the rich middle class. They tried to end the Reign of Terror
How did France react to the death of Louis XVI?
It emboldened France’s revolutionaries who continued to improve the country's political and social system
Thermidorian Reaction
July 27, 1794; ended the Reign of Terror
How did Olympe de Gouges fight for women's rights?
She wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Women.
How was French Society unequal in 1789?
The first and second estates would team up on the third estate.
Was the Estates General fair? Why or why not?
The Estates General was not fair because the third estate had little to no political power.
What was the most important cause of the French Revolution? Why?
The most important cause of the Revolution was the unfairness of the Old Regime. It forced the poor to pay taxes they couldn’t afford and didn’t allow the third estate any say so in political decisions.