Geol Exam 1

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A natural process and event that is a potential threat to human life and property
Hazards event that occurs over a limited time span within a defined area
a massive natural disaster that requires significant time and money for recovery
Internal Processes
results of internal forces/ energy deep within the earth
Internal Processes Examples
Earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis
External Processes
Results of external forces, such as atmospheric or gravity, energy from the sun
External Processes Examples
Extreme weather, storms, climate chance, subsidence, and floods etc.
Natural Hazards take an average of ____ every year over the last 20 years
Hazards cost United States between __ to ___ billion dollars annually
10 to 50
5 fundamental concepts
1. Science helps us predict hazards. 2. Knowing hazard risks can help people make decisions. 3. Linkages exist between natural hazards 4. Humans can turn disastrous events into catastrophes 5. Consequences of hazards can be minimized.
Environmental Unity
one action causes other in a chain of actions and events.
Needs to state exactly where and when the event will happen, with enough specifics to be useful for response planning purposes.
an estimation of how certain they are that their forecast will be accurate (probability information)
(probability of event)x (consequences)
Acceptable Risk
the amount of risk that an individual or society is willing to take
Impacts of hazards depend on
Magnitude, frequency, other factors
amount of energy released
interval between occurrences
Magnitude-frequency concept
Frequency of an event inversely related to magnitude Natural events with a moderate energy magnitude and more frequency => the most important shapers of events
Geology is the study of
the solid earth, which includes the materials that make up the planet and the various events that shape it.
An untested, proposed explanation for facts or observations
Results from the survival of extensive examination of competing hypotheses relates to the topic
Principal or Law
Summaries of many experimental results and observations
Population of the planet
7.7 billion
Population of the United States
332 Million
Population of Texas
29 Million
Population ageing is a
Shift in the distribution of a country's populations towards older ages It is reflected in an increasing median age in a population as declining birth rate and rising longevity (ave. age)
Rate of Natural Increase (r) =
Birth Rate (b) – Death Rate (d) ; r = b – d
Rapid growth of population results in problems with maintaining:
Water supplies for irrigation, drinking, and industry Land is clearly a basic resource as well, farmland to produce crops to feed a hungry earth, (also manufacturing, transportation) Food production is an energy-intensive business Supply of energy and minerals for our material-based lifestyle (life quality) Pollution of air, land, and water pursuing
The solar system formed about
4.6 billion yrs ago
The Big bang theory
the dominant scientific theory about the origin and evolution of the universe (12 to 15 billion years ago)
Types of planets in our solar system
8 total Four rocky and metallic inner planets(Innermost planets very hot, nearest the Sun) Four gaseous outer planets (Outer planets very cold)
dense materials, like metallic iron, would have tended to sink toward the middle of the earth. As cooling progressed, lighter, low-density minerals crystallized and floated out toward the surface
Types of energy sources
Earth’s internal heat (Plate Tectonics) Gravity The Sun, solar radiation Impact of extraterrestrial bodies
The center of the earth is (tempature)
12,000 F
Where does the heat come from
Original Heat from formation Radioactive Decay of isotopes in the mantle and crust
Geological Cycle
a collective term used to describe the complex interactions between the component sub-cycles:
Sub-cycles of the geological cycle
1. Tectonic cycle 2. Rock cycle 3. Hydrologic cycle 4. Biogeochemical cycle
Tectonic Cycle
the large-scale geologic processes that deform Earth's crust and produce landforms such as ocean basins, continents, and mountains.
Tectonic cycle involves
the creation, movement, and destruction of tectonic plates
Internal Structure of Earth
Divided into distinct layers based on chemical and mechanical properties. Consequence of differentiation of the early Earth (density) Most knowledge of the earth’s interior by seismic studies
P waves
fastest, gases, liquids and solids (all phases)
S Waves
higher amplitude, only through solids
Thin rocky, outer shell of the planet. Oceanic and Continental
Solid Rock Layer between the crust and the core. It has 2,885 km thick, and the mantle is 82% of the earth's volume (Iron-magnesium-silicates)
an iron rich sphere with a radius of 3,471 km, mostly metallic iron, high temperature (sun surface) (Size of moon but hot as sun)
The outer core is
The Inner Core is
The inner core is solid because
it is made of very dense, or heavy materials, like iron. Even though it is very hot, these materials don't "melt" very easily, so they stay solid.
outmost and rigid layer
hot and slowly flowing layer (soft plastic)
below asthenosphere, bounded by increasing of seismic velocity (stiff plastic).
Liquid outer core
temperature and pressure are so balanced that the iron is molten and exists as a liquid.
Solid Inner Core
The solid center of the Earth (solid).
Plates move apart New lithosphere created
Plates move together Lithosphere recycled
Plates slide past each other
The tectonic cycle is responsible for
hazards, such as volcanoes and earthquakes.
Rock Cycle
a group of changes between igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks, and metamorphic rocks. It is also the largest of the geologic sub cycles, and it is linked to all the other sub cycles.
limestone is composed of Calcite (CaCO3) which will dissolve in carbonic acid to form collapses succulent as sink holes
are composed if fine particles. Landslides hazards are easy to occur in shales
(smecite) can swell a lot when met water (subsidence, seal the well)
Three Families of rocks
Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic
Igneous Rocks
Formed from molten rock material, two types: Intrusive and Extrusive
Intrusive Igneous Rocks
Magma, Coarse
Extrusive Igneous Rocks
Lava, Fine Grains, Frozen in disordered state
sedimentary rock form from
weathered pieces of pre-existing rocks into smaller pieces (sediments) by direct precipitation from aqueous solutions
Shape or Form
Metamorphic Rocks
Rocks that have undergone a physical and/or chemical change from its original from (phytolith) to adapt to changing pressure, temperature, and chemical conditions in the solid state
Hydrological Cycle:
Describes the continuous movements of water on, above and bellow the surface of the earth
Hydrological Cycle is driven by
solar energy: the cycle operates by a way of evaporation, precipitation, surface runoff, and subsurface flow, and water is stored in different compartments along the way.
Evaporation is the process
whereby solar energy releases water molecules directly from free water surfaces. Water vapor is the result.
the process that plants pump water into air
Evapotranspiration =
Evaporation + Transpiration
water falling from the atmosphere to the earth
the downward entry of water into the soil (events during precipitation
the portion of rainfall which flows through the rivers, streams etc.
Primary reason for river flooding
Biogeochemical cycle
the transfer or cycling of a chemical element or elements through the atmosphere (the layer of gases surrounding Earth), lithosphere (Earth's rocky outer layer), hydrosphere (oceans, lakes, rivers, and groundwater), and biosphere (the part of the Earth where life exists).
Largest element Cycles
Carbon (C) Hydrogen (H) Nitrogen (N) Oxygen (O) Phosphorus (P) Sulfur (S)
Carbon moves from the atmosphere to plants
food chain
Carbon moves from plants to animals
Carbon moves from plants and animals to soils/fossil fuel
Carbon moves from living things to the atmosphere
Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)
Describes long-term storage of carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon reduce global warming and avoid dangerous climate change.