27 Terms

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Binary

Base 2 positional numbering system. Uses the digits 0 and 1.
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 1 and zyBook Section 2.2

Bit

Binary Digit
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 1 and zyBook Section 2.1

Byte

Group of 8 bits
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 1 and zyBook Section 2.1

Overflow

Occurs when computer tries to represent a number that exceeds the maximum value
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 1 and zyBook Section 2.2

Binary Numbers

Used to store data internally for numerical values, letters, graphics, etc.
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 1 and zyBook Section 2.2

Two's Complement

Leftmost bit represents negative of its positional value
- To find 2's complement, flip the bits and add 1.
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 2 and zyBook Section 2.3

Decimal

Base 10 positional numbering system (because humans have 10 fingers)
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 1 and zyBook Section 2.2

Hexadecimal

Base 16 positional numbering system (4 bits = 1 hex digit)
9 9
10 A
11 B
12 C
13 D
14 E
15 F
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 1 and zyBook Section 2.4

Code Mapping

Assign each letter or symbol a unique number. Used to represent text in binary. Example: ASCII
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4

ASCII

American standard code mapping for information interchange (widely used 8 bit code mapping)
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4 and zyBook Section 2.1

Unicode

16 and 32 bit code mapping to represent text (used for characters outside of English)
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4 and zyBook Section 2.2

Digitizing

Converts an analog signal (like sound) to a digital number
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4 and zyBook Section 2.12

Sampling

At fixed time intervals, the signal amplitude is measured and stored
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4 and zyBook Section 2.12

Sampling rate

Number of times per second that we measure signal amplitude. For example a sample rate or sampling rate of 44.1 kHz means 44, 100 samples are collected in 1 second.
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4 and zyBook Section 2.12

bit depth

Number of bits used to store each sample. Recall that 16 bit video games can represent more colors than retro-8-bit games because 16 bits can contain 256 times more numerical values then 8 bits.
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4 and zyBook Section 2.12

Pixel

picture element
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4 and zyBook Section 2.11

RGB

The most common format for storing color images. Each pixel has (Red, Green, Blue)
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4 and zyBook Section 2.11

Frame rate

Number of frames (images) shown per second of video.
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4 and zyBook Section 2.11

Pixel bit depth

Number of bits used to store each RGB color (usually at least 8)
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4 and zyBook Section 2.11

Radix / base

number of unique digits, including the digit zero, used to represent numbers in a positional numeral system.
Binary - 2, Octal - 8, Decimal - 10, Hexadecimal - 16, etc.
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 1 and zyBook Section 2.5/2.6

Underflow

Occurs when computer tries to represent a number that is less than the minimum value that the device is capable of storing.
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4

floating-point number

A floating-point number is a real number, like 98.6, 0.0001, or -666.667. The term "floating-point" refers to the decimal point being able to appear anywhere ("float") in the number.
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 3 and zyBook Section 2.6

normalized scientific notation

floating-point numbers are commonly written using normalized scientific notation, such as 9.86 Ã— 10^1, 1.0 Ã— 10^-4, or -6.66667 Ã— 10^2, where the number is written as a digit (+/- 1 to 9), decimal point, fractional part, times 10 to a power. The term "normalized" is in contrast to non-normalized where more than one digit, or a 0, may precede the decimal point, such as -66.6667 Ã— 10^-0.1 or 0.1 Ã— 10^-3.
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 3 and zyBook Section 2.6

significand / mantissa

the part before Ã— in normalized scientific notation
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 3 and zyBook Section 2.6

binary point

for binary floating-point numbers, the "dot" is called a binary point (versus decimal point for decimal numbers) The general term is radix point.
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 3 and zyBook Section 2.6

analog

a signal that changes continuously over time
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4 and zyBook Section 2.12

digital

a series of binary numbers
Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4 and zyBook Section 2.12