# Chapter 2 (Binary)

0.0(0) Reviews
Duplicate
Report Flashcard set

## Tags

27 Terms
ðŸ˜ƒ Not studied yet (27)
Binary
Base 2 positional numbering system. Uses the digits 0 and 1. Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 1 and zyBook Section 2.2
Bit
Binary Digit Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 1 and zyBook Section 2.1
Byte
Group of 8 bits Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 1 and zyBook Section 2.1
Overflow
Occurs when computer tries to represent a number that exceeds the maximum value Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 1 and zyBook Section 2.2
Binary Numbers
Used to store data internally for numerical values, letters, graphics, etc. Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 1 and zyBook Section 2.2
Two's Complement
Leftmost bit represents negative of its positional value - To find 2's complement, flip the bits and add 1. Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 2 and zyBook Section 2.3
Decimal
Base 10 positional numbering system (because humans have 10 fingers) Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 1 and zyBook Section 2.2
Base 16 positional numbering system (4 bits = 1 hex digit) 9 9 10 A 11 B 12 C 13 D 14 E 15 F Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 1 and zyBook Section 2.4
Code Mapping
Assign each letter or symbol a unique number. Used to represent text in binary. Example: ASCII Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4
ASCII
American standard code mapping for information interchange (widely used 8 bit code mapping) Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4 and zyBook Section 2.1
Unicode
16 and 32 bit code mapping to represent text (used for characters outside of English) Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4 and zyBook Section 2.2
Digitizing
Converts an analog signal (like sound) to a digital number Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4 and zyBook Section 2.12
Sampling
At fixed time intervals, the signal amplitude is measured and stored Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4 and zyBook Section 2.12
Sampling rate
Number of times per second that we measure signal amplitude. For example a sample rate or sampling rate of 44.1 kHz means 44, 100 samples are collected in 1 second. Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4 and zyBook Section 2.12
bit depth
Number of bits used to store each sample. Recall that 16 bit video games can represent more colors than retro-8-bit games because 16 bits can contain 256 times more numerical values then 8 bits. Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4 and zyBook Section 2.12
Pixel
picture element Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4 and zyBook Section 2.11
RGB
The most common format for storing color images. Each pixel has (Red, Green, Blue) Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4 and zyBook Section 2.11
Frame rate
Number of frames (images) shown per second of video. Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4 and zyBook Section 2.11
Pixel bit depth
Number of bits used to store each RGB color (usually at least 8) Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4 and zyBook Section 2.11
number of unique digits, including the digit zero, used to represent numbers in a positional numeral system. Binary - 2, Octal - 8, Decimal - 10, Hexadecimal - 16, etc. Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 1 and zyBook Section 2.5/2.6
Underflow
Occurs when computer tries to represent a number that is less than the minimum value that the device is capable of storing. Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4
floating-point number
A floating-point number is a real number, like 98.6, 0.0001, or -666.667. The term "floating-point" refers to the decimal point being able to appear anywhere ("float") in the number. Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 3 and zyBook Section 2.6
normalized scientific notation
floating-point numbers are commonly written using normalized scientific notation, such as 9.86 Ã— 10^1, 1.0 Ã— 10^-4, or -6.66667 Ã— 10^2, where the number is written as a digit (+/- 1 to 9), decimal point, fractional part, times 10 to a power. The term "normalized" is in contrast to non-normalized where more than one digit, or a 0, may precede the decimal point, such as -66.6667 Ã— 10^-0.1 or 0.1 Ã— 10^-3. Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 3 and zyBook Section 2.6
significand / mantissa
the part before Ã— in normalized scientific notation Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 3 and zyBook Section 2.6
binary point
for binary floating-point numbers, the "dot" is called a binary point (versus decimal point for decimal numbers) The general term is radix point. Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 3 and zyBook Section 2.6
analog
a signal that changes continuously over time Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4 and zyBook Section 2.12
digital
a series of binary numbers Found in lecture Chapter 2 - Bits 4 and zyBook Section 2.12