APES Unit 1

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42 Terms
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convergent boundaries
result in creation of mountains, island arcs, earthquakes, and volcanoes
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divergent boundaries
result in seafloor spreading, rift valleys, volcanoes and earthquakes
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transform boundaries
result in earthquakes
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center, composed of mostly iron, molten
thick solid zone surrounding core (second layer), most of earth mass
outside layer, thinnest, consists of the continental and oceanic crust, oxygen is most abundant
one or more minerals bound together
one mineral, ex. limestone- calcite (CaCO3), quartzite- quartz (SIO2)
several minerals, ex. granite- quartz, feldspar, mica etc.
forms by molten material, form bulk of earths crust, ex. granite, obsidian, basalt, scoria
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form by deposition under water, ex. shale, siltstone, sandstone
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rock changed from another rock
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physical weathering
thermal expansion, frost action, exfoliation
chemical weathering
carbonation, oxidation
5 agents of erosion
gravity, wind, ice, water and humans
downward movement of water
percent of pore space (open space)
rate of infiltration
fine particles, low permeability, naturally alkaline
sedimentary consisting of particles between size of clay and sand, easily transported by water
coarser than silt, high permeability, well drained
equal mixture of clay, sand, silt and humus. rich in nutrients- ideal agricultural soil, holds water but not waterlogged
soil degradation
natural or human induced process that decreases the ability of land to support crops or livestock animals
splash erosion
impact of falling raindrops breaks up structure of topsoil
sheet erosion
without infiltration, water runs off and carries more particles with it
Rill- Gully Erosion
sheet erosion carves gullies in soil which carry water and soil particles
accelerates erosion- temporary or permanent removal of large expanses of forest for agriculture, settlements or other uses
accelerates erosion- plow to control weeds and increase aeration- leaves no plant residue + significant soil loss can occur
accelerates erosion- when animals exceeds to carrying capacity for the particular rangeland
particles washed into rivers by erosion settle and disrupt stream and lake systems
aquifer depletion
groundwater suplies are diminished because water runs off land instead of infiltrating into the soil
process where erosion progressed to a point where the ecology and production classify a once fertile area as a desert
no/ low till farming
farming without plowing the land, avoids exposing the soil to direct sun, wind and water. requires switch from shallow rooted anual plants that require annual tillage to perennial deep rooted plants that dont need tillage
conservation tillage
using specialized tillers and planting machines that drill seeds directly through crop residues into undisturbed topsoil
strip cropping
planting alternating strips of a row crop (corn) and another crop that completley covers the soil (cover crop- alfalfa + clover)
contour farming
plowing across the slope of a hill rather than up and down. reduces erosion by slowing runoff and preventing water from gaining momentum as it flows down a slow increasing erosion
converting a hilly slope to flat terraces that follow the contours of the slope
shelterbelts/ windbreaks
rows of shrubs or trees that are planted next to or around fields to slow down the winds that could blow topsoil off the land
agro foresty/ alley cropping
crops and trees are grown together
different plants maturing at different times are planted together
rotational grazing
range managment where number and duration of grazing animals in controlled
crop rotation
corn- soy beans- oats- alfalfa- corn symbiotic relationship