Biology Mid-Term Exam Study Guide

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The form of a gene that is always expressed if present is the _________ form.
Two heterozygous purple-flowering pea plants are crossed. If purple is dominant over white, what are the expected phenotypic results?
75% purple, 25% white.
What law BEST explains why an organism with ‘Tt’ will show only the dominant phenotype?
Law of Dominance
If an organism inherits one dominant allele and one recessive allele for eye color, their genotype would be:
Two parents have the genotype Gg for a genetic disorder caused by a recessive allele. What is the chance that any of their children will inherit the disorder?
Which Mendelian law of inheritance states that organisms inherit two copies of each gene and donate one copy to each of their offspring?
Law of Segregation
In pigs, the allele for a wavy, rough coat (R) is dominant to the allele for a soft, fine coat (r). A rough coat boar and a soft coat sow mate. They produce several litters, 50% are rough coat and 50% are smooth coat. What must be the genotypes of the parents to create this phenotypic ratio?
Rr x rr
Imagine two heterozygous parents. Each has a dominant allele (B) for brown eyes and a recessive allele (b) for blue eyes. What would the genotypic ratio of the offspring be?
25% BB, 50% Bb, 25% bb
Identify the following genotypes as homozygous or heterozygous: TT _____, Tt _______, tt________-
TT: homozygous Tt: heterozygous tt: homozygous
If square is dominant over round, what are the phenotypes for the following genotypes? SS _______, Ss _____, ss _________
SS: square Ss: square ss: round
For an XX female to express a recessive sex-linked trait, she must have _______
Two recessive alleles
Human height occurs in a continuous range because it is affected by the interaction of many genes, making it a(n)
Polygenic Trait
Red hair and freckles are commonly inherited together. Which of following patterns of inheritance explains this?
Linked Genes
In a newly discovered species of flower, it was discovered that the color of the flowers is determined by two different genes. Which of the following inheritance patterns is this?
Polygenic Inheritance
A version of a gene.
When the heterozygous genotype results in a phenotype where both alleles are fully and separately expressed.
Chromosomes in 1-44 in humans.
Only expressed when genotype is homozygous.
Genes that travel on the X chromosome.
A diagram that shows homologous chromosome pairs.
Section of a chromosome that codes for a single protein.
Overshadows the other allele in the heterozygous state.
Condensed genetic material
When one gene overshadows another.
At the end of meiosis, each gamete formed should only have 1 copy form each homologous chromosome pair.
Law of Segregation
The actual alleles you inherit.