WHAP VOCAB UNIT 5 1st Half (copy)

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Due to Wolford Splitting the Vocab in Half

19 Terms
😃 Not studied yet (19)
Def: the political theory that monarchs have complete control over their subjects by divine right Sig: this theory allowed many monarchs across Eurasia to consolidate their power at a time of remarkable change to their societies and to handle the religious diversity of their many subjects
Adam Smith
Def: a Scottish economist, Enlightenment philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher who authored "The Wealth of Nations" Sig: Opposed mercantilism because he believed government should not have a hand in directing the economy (i.e. laissez faire); believed economy should be directed by consumers and supply and demand; credited for creating classical economics and championing capitalism
Def: the largely middle class who defended the French Revolution against the aristocracy; in Marxist ideology, a class or group of people committed to owning private-property Sig: later become termed as "capitalists" who, according to socialist ideology, exploited the labor of the working class to become wealthy, leading to issues such as poverty, inequality, etc.
Def: an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state Sig: was a direct result of Industrialization and Imperialism; the system spread, along with democracy, around the globe; heavily influenced globalization and led to direct competition with socialist countries and economies
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789)
Def: set forth by the National Assembly in 1789, this revolutionary document that was established during the French Revolution; it described ideals of natural rights, rights of man are universal and the protection of individuals under the law Sig: further spread Enlightenment ideals and influenced the eventual overthrow of the French monarchy; it influenced the spread of freedom and democracy around the globe into the 19th century, including Haiti
Def: also known as the "Age of Reason"; period of time where thinkers began to apply principles of reason and nature to government, economics, etc.; thinkers such as John Locke, Montesquieu and Voltaire were among the most influential Sig: these ideas caused people to question and reject traditional forms of government, most notably absolutism; played a critical role in revolution and rebellion against existing governments, as well as the abolition of slavery, suffrage and the end of serfdom
First Industrial Revolution
Def: technological innovations in the 1700s led to the industrialization and mass production of goods using machine power; was a gradual process that spread throughout western Europe to Russia, the U.S. and Japan Sig: revolutionized production of goods through machines such as the flying shuttle and spinning jenny; standard of living rose and rapid urbanization occurred as people moved to the cities to work in factories; led to the rise of the bourgeoisie; governments passed legislation to protect workers
Haitian Revolution (1791-1804)
Def: the first colony in Latin America to gain its independence; leaders such as slave Toussaint-Louverture organized the revolt and they gained their independence from France in 1804 Sig: first well-known successful slave revolt; inspired slaves to challenge authority in other areas of the Americas while inspiring fear among the white ruling classes
Latin American Revolutions
Def: a series of uprisings in the Spanish colonies of Latin America (1810-1826) that established the independence of new states from Spanish rule but that for the most part retained the privileges of the elites despite efforts at more radical social rebellion by the lower classes; these revolutions were inspired in part by the ideals spread from the American and French Revolutions Sig: led to the decrease of Spanish global power and the rise of many independent nations across Central and South America; however, many lower class peoples were still repressed and didn't truly gain political power or influence in these countries
Letter from Jamaica (1815)
Def: was a document written by Simon Bolivar in 1815; he explained his thoughts on Spanish power in the time period and the possible future of new states after the results of revolutions against Spain; he called for the support of Europe in the Latin American's struggle for independence against Spain Sig: heavily influenced by Enlightenment ideals and those revolutionary documents from the American and French Revolutions; Bolivar expressed ideas of equality under the law, democracy, and natural rights of all
Def: a political ideology asserting that individuals possess certain rights such as liberty and equality and that the purpose of government is to protect these rights Sig: developed in response to the Enlightenment ideas and the changes brought about by the American and French Revolutions and reflective of the spread of transnational ideologies in this time period
A Vindication of the Rights of Women
Def: one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy; Wollstonecraft argues that all women should have the right to education, as they are the ones educating children; additionally, she argued that women have fundamentally the same rights as men. Sig: became extremely popular and initiated many debates across countries and the need for greater women's rights; influenced by revolutionary and Enlightenment ideals, the publication further spread ideas of freedom and equality around the globe.
Def: feeling of pride in one's nation; played a significant role in political movements throughout the late 18th and 19th centuries, including during the French Revolution and the unification movements in Germany and Italy Sig: beginning in the 1700s, this global trend emerged as people began to develop a new sense of identity based on shared language, religion, traditions and territory; influenced the Zionist movement, Sepoy Mutiny and the Tanzimat Reforms in the Ottoman Empire Nation-State (definition)
Declaration of the Rights of Woman and Female Citizen
Def: written in 1791 by French feminist and activist Olympe de Gouges in response to the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen during the French Revolution; de Gouges hoped to expose the failure of the revolution in establishing gender equality in France and create more gender equality in the new French government Sig: as a result of her writings, de Gouges was immediately executed; it brought attention to a set of feminist concerns that collectively reflected and influenced the aims of many French Revolution activists; it helped to spread the ideas of feminism throughout Western Europe
Propaganda Movement
Def: was the first Filipino nationalist movement and was led by mestizos and creoles who were relatively wealthy, and had been influenced by Enlightenment ideals spread around Europe. The leaders felt that the Philippines should be fully incorporated into Spain as a Spanish province, not as a colony, with the Filipinos granted the same rights as Spanish citizens Sig: the movement failed to succeed in granting the Philippines a territory of Spain, and remained a colony; however, the ideals of the movement spread nationalism throughout the Philippines and would later influence their fight for independence in 1896; Filipino cultural identity were also established as a result of this movement
Second Industrial Movement
Def: emerged with the invention of electricity and the production of steel, chemicals and precision machinery in the later 19th century Sig: created heavily industrialized nations and increased military power; created globally-dominated countries with the use of new technology and weaponry; spread capitalist ideals to a global market
Simon Bolivar
Def: a creole from South America who led a successful revolutionary movement against Spanish rule; for over a decade he led military campaigns against the Spanish, winning independence for Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia Sig: was inspired by the American and French Revolutions and Enlightenment ideals; desired to create a United States of Latin America but was hindered by nationalist sentiments, which led to the creation of individual nations instead
Specialization of Labor
Def: the breakdown of jobs into more narrow and specific tasks; rose with the prominence of the factory system in the 19th century, with certain workers taking on certain roles within the factory system Sig: led to the rise of factory jobs and increasing use of machinery for labor; eventually decreased human labor in favor of machinery and moving parts to create products
Def: an increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements; during the Industrial Revolution, large amounts of the population migrated from rural areas to cities in search of work Sig: led to widespread poverty, overcrowding, crime, pollution and overall decrease in the standard of living in cities; many governments struggled to have the infrastructure in place to support the large migration of people