MICR 3050- Majors Final Exam Unit 3

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Killing, inhibiting, or the removal of pathogenic microorganisms on inanimate objects
Uses moist heat sterilization Effective against all microbes
Slows microbial growth and reproduction
Ultraviolet Radiation
Non-ionizing radiation Poor penetrating power Used to sterilize the surfaces in an operating room
Chemical agent that kills or inhibits the growth of microogranisms when applied to living tissue
Controlled heating at temperatures well below boiling Kills pathogens and slows spoilage
Gamma Irradiation
Form of ionizing radiation Penetrates deep into objects
What is an exception to refrigerators as a low temperature microbe growth control method?
Psychrotolerant microbes
Synthetic Antimicrobial Drugs
Chemical compound used to treat a diseasse by destroying or inhibiting the growth of pathogenic microbes
Naturally produced antimicrobial agents
Semi-Synthetic Antimicrobial Drugs
Chemically modified antibiotics
Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics
Attacks many different pathogens
Narrow-Spectrum Antibiotics
Attack only a select few pathogens
Is penicillin a synthetic, a semi-synthetic, or an antibiotic?
Antimicrobial Resistance
Acquired ability of a microorganism to resist the effects of a chemotherapeutic agent to which it is normally sensitive
3 Ways drug resistance can occur naturally
1. Natural Immunity Genes 2. Spontaneous Mutations 3. Horizontal Gene Transfer
Intrinsic Factors of Microbial Spoilage
Food composition pH Water activity Physical structure
Extrinsic Factors of Microbial Spoilage
Temperature Humidity Atmosphere
What is the Danger Zone Range?
Food Intoxication
Ingestion of preformed microbial toxins in foods Growth of the pathogen in the host is not required
Food Infection
Infection resulting from the ingestion of the pathogens in food Ingestion is followed by colonization
Characteristics of an effective vaccine
Stimulates an innate immune response Stimulates an adapative immune response
Penicillin Cell Target
Peptidoglycan in Gram+ cells
The synthesis of what is targeted by penicillin?
Cell walls
How does microbial resistance spread through bacterial populations?
Horizontal Gene Transfer
Gram+, food intoxication, enterotoxin producer that has the distinguishing symptoms of: Explosive Vomiting Subnormal Body Temp
Staphylococcus aureus
Gram+, food intoxication, neurotoxin producer that has the distinguishing symptoms of: Heart paralysis Difficulty breathing, swallowing, speaking
Clostridium botulinum
Gram-, food infection, endotoxin/enterotoxin/cytotoxin producer that has an infectious dose of 10^7-10^9 and has the distinguishing symptoms: Headache Chills Vomiting Diarrhea Fever
Salmonella enterica
Gram-, food infection, verotoxin, producer that has an infectious dose of <10 and has the distinguishing symptoms: Blood Diarrhea Kidney Failure
Enterohemmorrhagic E. coli
Gram+, food infection, psychrotolerant, acid-tolerant, salt-tolerant microbe that has an infefctious does of <1000 and has the distinguishing symptoms: Bacteremia Meningitis Miscarriage
Listeria monocytogenes
How can fermentation aid in food preservation?
Lowers the pH of food, making it hard for microbes to survive
What type of process is fermantation characteristic of?
Probiotic Characterics
Live microorganisms that can confer health benefits when administered in adequate amounts
Prebiotic Characteristics
Substances that promote the growth of probiotics
Red Wine Characteristics
Skin is left in during the fermentation process to achieve the red color Aged longer
White Wine Characteristics
Skin is removed before the fermentation process Aged for considerably less time than red wine
Lager Beer Characteristics
Uses a bottom yeast for the fermentation process Fermented for a longer period of time at a cooler temperature
Ale Characteristics
Uses top yeast for the fermentation process Fermentated for a short period of time at a warm temperature