Miss Meyer's Chapter 1 Biology Test Study Guide

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Definition of Biology
The study of life
How many characteristics of life are there?
Name the characteristics of life
organization and cells, response to stimuli, homeostasis, metabolism, growth and development, reproduction, and evolution
How many cells must all living things be made of?
At least one or more
List the smallest to largest levels of cell organization
Atoms, biomolecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
Describe atom and give examples
the smallest particle of an element; oxygen, carbon, nitrogen
Describe biomolecule and give examples
chemical compound that is essential to processes in organisms; protein, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids
Describe organelle and give examples
specialized structure within a cell; mitochondrion, nucleus, ribosome, vesicle
Describe cell and give examples
the smallest unit that can perform all of life's processes; red blood cells, nerve cells, skin cells
Difference between multicellular and unicellular
Multicellular is an organism with multiple cells (rabbit, humans, trees) while unicellular is an organism with a single cell (bacteria)
Describe tissue and give examples
group of cells with similar abilities; nervous tissue, muscle tissue, epithelial tissue
Describe organ and give examples
collection of tissue with a specific function; brain, lung, kidneys, heart
Describe organ system and give examples
group of organs that work together; respiratory system, digestive system, circulatory system
Describe organism and give examples
an individual animal, plant, fungus, or unicellular life form
__________ organisms jump straight from cell to organism
What is a stimulus?
a physical or chemical change in an internal or external environment that causes a reaction (light, sound, touch/pressure, temperature
What does a response to stimulus do?
Is used as a survival method for organisms in which they respond/react to internal & external changes (getting jump scared=flinch; shark smells blood=hunt; pupils dilating in response to light changes)
What is homeostasis and give examples
regulation and maintenance of constant internal conditions in an organism; sweat glands producing sweat in response to heat, hunger pains when blood glucose levels are low, shivering/goosebumps in response to cold
Differences between response to stimulus and homeostasis?
Homeostasis is the regulation of a stable internal environment while response to stimuli is a change in either your internal or external environment that causes a reaction
What is metabolism and give examples
sum of all chemical reactions occurring in an organism (process where your body breaks down food into energy and disposes waste)
Name 2 Major processes/chemical reactions involved in metabolism
photosynthesis (creates sugar), cellular respiration (breaks down sugar)
Finish the sentence: All living things grow from ______________________
the enlargement and division of cells
Describe cell division
the process of 2 new cells forming from an existing cell
Describe development and what it involves
an organism becomes a mature adult which involves cell division, cell differentiation, mental enhancement, and social interactions
What is cell differentiation
when generic cells (stem cells) become special by acquiring a specific function (stem cells can become many different types), unicellular cannot do this
What is reproduction and why is it important if it isn't necessary for an organism's survival?
when new individuals are produced from "parent" individual(s) and it is important because a SPIECES must reproduce if they want to survive
Name 2 types of reproduction, give definition and example
sexual - the DNA of two "parents" combines to form genetically different offspring (humans, cats) (the organisms must be able to make the cells sperm and egg) asexual (a=not) - one "parent" makes clones (identical) of itself (bacteria (except for mutations) and many invertebrates such as worms, starfish, potatoes, and daffodils
Define reproduction
When new individuals are made from "parental" organisms
Definition of Evolution
unnecessary for organism to survive; change in generic makeup and frequency over generations
What is the scientific method?
organized approach scientists use to study the world around them
Name the 8 steps of the scientific method
1. Observe - notice a natural occurrence 2. Ask - ask a question about the occurrence 3. Hypothesis - a proposed educated guess/theory to answer you question 4. Make a predicament - statement describing what you think will happen if you tested your hypothesis format: if i do this then that will happen 5. Experiment - test your hypothesis 6. Analyze data - use graphs and statistics 7. Publish your findings 8. Revise hypothesis and test again as needed
What are 2 things necessary for an experiment to be considered controlled?
Compares an experimental group and control group, only one dependent variable
What is a control group and why is it important?
group that is not manipulated by the researcher and it is important because you need it to compare your experiment to something
What does an experimental group have that a control group doesn't?
Difference between dependent and independent variables?
Independent variable causes changes in the dependent variable while dependent is what is being tested and changed
Difference between qualitative and quantitative?
quantitative is numerical data (ACT scores, weight, distance, length) qualitative is data expressed without numbers (scent, color)
Difference between inductive and deductive reasoning?
Inductive is going from specific to broad generalizations while deductive goes from broad to specific claims
List the key pieces of the microscope and explain
Eyepiece- you look through it to see the specimen Nosepiece - you can turn it to switch objectives Objectives - the 3 different magnification levels Stage clips - holds down the slide and keeps it still Diaphragm- controls the amount of light Illuminator - light source
State the magnification levels of the eyepiece, scanning, low power, and high power
10, 4 (red), 10 (yellow), 40 (blue)
Equation for total magnification
total magnification = eyepiece lens magnification x objective lens magnification