Public Speaking Test 2 Study Guide

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Jones College John Burks

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Which of the following was not a supporting method discussed in the lecture?
Numerical data is called
What sentence is considered the "behavioral objective" of the speech?
Specific Purpose Statement
Which organizational pattern is put in sequence order?
Sequential Design
Citing of words and ideas of others to support a point is called
A comment or action that encourages further communication from someone being interviewed
Criterion for evaluating whether or not a source provides an unbiased or balanced perspective
An internet search engine that allows you to enter keywords and find related websites
General Search Engine
Who face is one the one dollar bill?
George Washington
Who is the president of Jones College?
Dr. Smith
What principle of effective speech structure is reinforced by using language that is concise and direct?
parallel construction
the repetition of a chosen grammatical form within a sentence, making each compared item or idea in your sentence follow the same grammatical pattern
expert testimony
provided by an expert in the topic of your speech
hypothetical example
a fictional example that you or someone else has created to illustrate your point
rhetorical question
a question that's asked for effect with no answer expected.
You should first develop the _____ of the speech.
According to the principle of _____, all major parts of a speech should receive appropriate development.
Which part of a speech should be the longest?
Refutative design
defending a disputed thesis and confronting opposing views with reasoning and evidence
Chronological design
explains events or historical developments in the order in which they occurred
Comparative design
explores the similarities and differences among elements
Categorical design
arranges the main ideas of a speech so that they reflect major points of emphasis uncovered during research
Sequential design
explains the steps of a process in the order in which they should be taken
Spatial design
arranges the main points of a subject as they occur in actual space, often taking listeners on an imaginary tour
Causation design
traces the origins or consequences of a situation or event, proceeding from cause to effect or from effect to cause
Narrative Design
tells a story
The principle of balance suggests that each part of a speech should receive appropriate development.
Parallel construction uses the same or similar wording for the main points of a speech.
The introduction and body of a brief speech should be approximately equal in length.
A sequential design would be the correct choice when you need to explain the timing of historical events.
A spatial design is based on physical relationships, such as east-west, north-south, or points on a map.
The major divisions of the main points of a speech are called transitions.
Informative speaking enlightens listeners by _____.
sharing ideas and information
According to your text, if you haven't done enough research to make you sufficiently informed about your topic, you are guilty of _____.
being irresponsible
To give an ethical informative speech, you should _____.
speak from responsible knowledge
What is the most important measure of the informative value of a speech?
the amount of new and important knowledge provided by the speaker
Informative speaking addresses all of the following basic human needs EXCEPT _____.
to act with conviction
Demonstration speech
shows an audience how to do something
Description speech
give the audience a clear image of your subject
Explanation speech
offers information about the nature, workings, and implications of subjects that are abstract or complicated
What kind of informative speech is most dependent on vivid language use?
speaking to describe
Which of these students is giving a "how to" speech? A. Janelle explained how the body processes refined sugars. B. Roberto demonstrated the best way to make pasta at home. C. Carrie described the types of music the orchestra planned to play. D. Nalia talked about the amazing holiday decorations the village used each year.
B. Roberto demonstrated the best way to make pasta at home.
Your purpose as an informative speaker is to convince the audience to change a behavior.
A speech on how to perform CPR would best be characterized as a speech of demonstration.
A speech offering information on a complicated subject, such as the reasons the state government has given for making budget cuts in social welfare programs, is an example of a speech of explanation.
Speeches of explanation face few challenges when their information runs counter to generally accepted beliefs.
Effective description relies heavily on the artful use of language.
When selecting a speech topic, what is the first requirement that must be met?
It should meet the expectations of the audience and the occasion.
Refinement phase
you identify the general and specific purposes of speeches you might give on these topics and write out your thesis statements
Discovery phase
you uncover promising topic areas
Exploration phase
you focus on specific speech topics within these areas
Which of these speakers is in the refinement phase of developing a speech topic? A. Norris knows he wants to talk about marine life and decides he should narrow his focus on efforts to preserve endangered fish in his home state. B. Jessica decides to rehearse her speech in front of two friends to help ease her anxiety. C. Micah decides to prepare note cards for her speech and organizes them based on her outline. D. Prab identifies the general and specific purpose for his speech and writes out his thesis statement.
D. Prab identifies the general and specific purpose for his speech and writes out his thesis statement.
According to the text, you should allow at least _____ to select your topic, prepare your speech, and practice your presentation.
one week
What should you refrain from in the initial stage of brainstorming?
A speaker would engage in brainstorming during which part of the process of finding and developing speech topics?
discovering a topic
What approach to developing topic ideas explores "habitual" paths of thought such as people, places, ideas, values, and problems?
interest charts
mediated prompts
Sources such as newspapers, magazines, and electronic media that can suggest ideas for speech topics.
The techniques of topic exploration are concerned primarily with _____.
focusing general areas of interest into more specific topic ideas
What is the general purpose of a speech to inform?
to share knowledge
What is the general purpose of a speech to persuade?
influence beliefs and actions
Which would make the best specific purpose statement for a speech encouraging listeners to donate money to Habitat for Humanity? A. To celebrate the fact that groups like Habitat for Humanity help those in need. B. To convince my audience that Habitat for Humanity is a reputable group. C. To persuade my audience to donate money to Habitat for Humanity. D. My audience should understand that homelessness is bad for everyone in our society.
C. To persuade my audience to donate money to Habitat for Humanity.
Double-focus trap
to ideas in one presentation or speech
triviality trap
boring or uninformative speech
disrupts the customary linear patterns of thinking in order to free our minds for creative exploration
A good topic is one that involves you and one that you care about.
The exploration phase of topic selection involves identifying general topic areas for discovery and refinement.
Brainstorming is a controlled process of topic exploration that subjects ideas to rigorous scrutiny as they are generated.
A topic area inventory chart can help you discover topic ideas by listing and cross-checking points of interest shared with your listeners.
Mind mapping establishes certain basic patterns of expression we take for granted in order to free our minds for creative exploration.
Mediated prompts are a method for exploring a topic area where the speaker uses a system of questions similar to those used by news writers.
The specific purpose of a speech should focus on the speaker's intent to inform or persuade.
Responsible knowledge of a topic includes which of the following components?
understanding the main issues surrounding your topic
What is the primary value of personal knowledge?
It adds credibility and authenticity to presentations.
4 R's: Relevance
the extent to which supporting materials apply directly to your topic and purpose for speaking
4 R's: Representativeness
the extent to which supporting materials depict a situation as it typically exists
4 R's: Recency
the timeliness or currency of supporting materials
4 R's: Reliability
the overall credibility of supporting materials
Which of the following research files should be used for compiling general ideas and observations that occur to you during the process of topic exploration?
research log
Source file
Contains complete information for citing your consulted sources on your bibliography
subject file
Contains the precise information you discover and gather while conducting your research.
document file
Contains articles downloaded from search engines or pages you scanned into your computer.
What is one recommendation the text gives to help you avoid accidental plagiarism?
Cite your sources when paraphrasing the words of others.
Google and Yahoo are examples of what type of Internet resource?
general search engines
purpose of advocacy website
to raise consciousness or to persuade people to think or act with respect to a given issue or proposition
purpose of information website
to raise consciousness or to persuade people to think or act with respect to a given issue or proposition
What type of websites are posted by such activist groups as the Sierra Club and the National Rifle Association?
The most important aspect to examine when reviewing information on an advocacy website is _____.
understanding the sponsoring group's agenda
The first consideration for evaluating the usefulness of websites and other online resources of information is to _____.
determine what kind of website you are viewing
Responsible knowledge best reflects your own personal opinions.
Using personal knowledge as part of your presentation will harm your credibility.
Representativeness refers to the extent to which supporting materials depict a situation as it typically exists.
A subject file records researched facts, quotations, and examples.
A metasearch engine provides links to a single collection of specialized research materials.
Advocacy sites are inherently unreliable.
Anyone can put anything on the Internet.
To determine the authority of information you find on the Internet, you should evaluate the credentials of both the source and the sponsor of the information.
What form of information should be your first objective when researching topics for speeches?
the facts
Observing that his lawn is wet, Jacob concludes that it must have rained. Jacob's conclusion refers to _____.
an inference
Why is it important to explain or interpret the meaning of factual information for your listeners?
to show how the facts support the point you are making
By _____, we mean the use of information that has been fabricated or distorted beyond reason to advance a hidden agenda.
Popular opinion polls best exemplify what form of supporting information?
When Jessica said, "Michael Jordan was the greatest basketball player of all time," she was providing _____.
an opinion
Which sources of testimony are qualified by training and experience?
lay testimony
brings your message to ordinary people
prestige testimony
aligns you with respected and authority figures
reluctant testimony
"Invoking the words of sources who appear to speak against their own interests.
quoting out of context
to twist the meaning of testimony to make it fit your purposes
Which of these speakers is using paraphrasing to share their information? A. Kellen noted that according to Sports Illustrated, 100% of the players in the NFL now use helmet inserts to protect from concussions. B. Marcus reads the text of the First Amendment to support his views on religious freedom. C. Jason directly quoted from Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech. D. Hillary provides a brief summary of a report on opioid abuse in her own words.
D. Hillary provides a brief summary of a report on opioid abuse in her own words.
When speakers want to establish assertions that are complicated or controversial, they should consider using _____ testimony.
When Greta told her audience about an occasion when the police arrived at her house less than five minutes after calling 911, she was using a(n) _____ example to illustrate her point.
factual example
provide strong support for your ideas because they actually did happen
hypothetical example
not offered as real so much as representative of actual people, situations, or events.
What form of information is best exemplified by the statement, "Imagine the fate of a small child without adequate health care"?
hypothetical example
Facts and statistics are especially important for informative and persuasive speaking.
If you are assessing the representativeness of the facts you have, you are making sure they are the most recent facts available.
Disinformation refers to the willful fabrication or distortion of information to advance a hidden agenda.
Reluctant testimony refers to information obtained without the consent of the source.
Speakers often use lay testimony to help listeners understand the real-life consequences of issues.
When a speaker uses the exact words of others, it is called paraphrasing.
What is the term for something that interferes with the communication process?
When preparing a presentation, speakers should focus on the central element of
The following statement is an example of what type of fallacy: We are spending to much time talking about regulating the cable TV industry while other countries are beating us in technological development A. Bandwagon B. Red herring C. Either-or D. Slippery Slope
B. Red herring
You should start to establish eye contact with the audience even before you begin to give your speech.
If a speaker's main points are organized according to location or direction, they are following what type of organizational speech pattern.
The creditability of your sources is not important if you have a lot of different ones on your work cited page.
Which one of the following would not be considered in a speech to inform?
Aristotle is created for creating the terms ethos, pathos, and logos.
The environment or situation in which the communication process takes place is known as what.
Delivering a speech in a conversational style from a well-developed and researched outline is called.
Extemporaneous delivery
Which of the following figures is often credited with bringing system and order to the study and teaching of public speaking?
In Congress, legislators present speeches when debating bills and deciding future policies for the country. Aristotle would call these _____ speeches.
Finding your voice as a public speaker refers to developing technical competence, learning more about yourself, and discovering your place in society.
Public speaking classes can act as laboratories for the democratic process.
An "other orientation" occurs when another person recognizes that you are listening to their communication.
Ethos refers to the use of reasoning and evidence in a speech.
The primary audience for a speech consists of anyone who might see it many months later when watching a video of the speech on YouTube.