History Term 4 and 3

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56 Terms
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The United Nations
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
a social construct
an idea that has been created and accepted by the people in a society
The Atlantic Charter
British and American statement of goals for fighting World War II
Four freedoms
freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from want, freedom from fear
Atlantic Charter (1941)
an official document that explains a group or nation's rights and responsibilities. it outlined the rights that all humans should have.
UNO objectives
- maintain peace and security - work together to reduce poverty, disease, and reduce illiteracy and to encourage respect for others basic rights - develop friendly relations among nations - to be a centre to help nations achieve these goals
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)
adopted in 1948 by UNO outlined the basic human rights that all people in the world should have, regardless if who they are or any other discriminating factor.
Belief that one race is superior to another
A group of human beings who share similar physical traits.
Racial segregation
separation from society because of race
Segregation in land ownership
-black people only owning land in reserves
reserves (homelands)
areas that were set aside where black South Africans were allowed to own land
Colour Bar Act 1926
skilled jobs were reserved for white workers only and black workers could only get unskilled or semi-skilled jobs
Civilised Labour Policy
the policy of the government in the 1920s and 1930s which reserved skilled jobs for white workers.
Pass system
form of influx control because blacks were seen as only temporary residents of a town.
The Native Representation Act (1936)
to represent black South Africans interest but in reality had no power as the government did not have to listen to its advice
Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act(1949)
-made marriage between white people and people if other races illegal.
Immortality Act (1950)
Forbade sexual relations between whites and those of another race
Population Registration Act (1950)
Categorised everyone in South Africa into racial groups
Group Areas Act (1950)
divided cities into racially-based areas
Native Abolition of Passes Act (1952)
-forced every black person over the age of 16 to carry a pass -if a black person lost their job they had 72 hours to find a new job before they were required to leave the city - if a person could not produce their passbook when police demanded it, they were fined or imprisoned
a book that contains all of a person's personal details, as well as their job and employrr
Separate Amenities Act (1953)
the act stated that facilities provided for different races
Bantu Education Act (1953)
created a separate, inferior education system for black students. it's purpose to make sure that Black South Africans would only ever be able to work as unskilled and semi-skilled labourers
Defiance Campaign positive consequences
- had over 8000 people arrested - huge increase in the ANC's membership from 7000-100000 - Led to formation of groups like The coloured people's congress & A congress Alliance - led to international solidarity movement (civil rights movement in USA under Matin Luther King
Diafiance Campaign negative consequences
- did not change the NP's laws - people could be arrested for no reason - newspapers were CENSORED - people were BANNED - Public Safety Act 1953 = allows government to decide a state of emergency at any time
Treason Trial effect
to take the leaders away from a movement and to make it ineffective
Formation of PAC
- led by Robert Sobukwe - broke away from the ANC - rejected ANC's policy if non-racialism - struggle: a national struggle against white domain
Sharpville Massacre date
21 March 1960
Sharpville Massacre
Police fired on peaceful protest against pass laws, killing 69
Short-term Consequences of Sharpville massacre by resistance movements
1. massive stay away from work 2. anti-pass demonstrations continued
Short-term Consequences of Sharpville massacre by apartheid government
1. over 18000 demonstrators arrested 2. Verwoerd declared a state of emergency -detention without trial -gatherings over 10 people forbidden 3. 1 month later ANC & PAC banned
Long-term consequences by resistance movements
- many went into exile to avoid arrest - others took the struggle underground - ANC & PAC adopted violent methods of struggle after much debate - formed secret armed resistance groups
Sabotage Campaign
Aim: to overthrow SA government In first 18 months they orchestrated 200 acts of sabotage
What was the government's response to the armed struggle?
Aim: to eliminate future resistance - police given power to crush resistance -arrested 1000s of people - crushed poqo -90 Days detention Act - Rivonia Trial
90 Days Detention Act
arrested without a charge, and kept in jail for up to 90 days; then renewed to 180 days
Rivonia Trial
Trial that took place in South Africa between 1963 and 1964 in which leaders of the ANC were tried. This trial sent Nelson Mandela to prison.
How did the rest of the world respond?
- world saw apartheid government was violent and that 'separate development was unequal - April 1960 : UN Security Council demanded end to apartheid - International demonstrations - International anti-apartheid organizations
Soweto Uprising (date)
Soweto Uprising factors
1. Role of Black Consciousness 2. Strikes of 1973 3. Liberian of Angola and Mozambique (1975) 4. Bantu Education and the introduction of Afrikaans as a medium of instruction
Black Consciousness.
movement to encourage blacks to take pride in their race, overcoming lies they have been told about whites being better than them
Black Consciousness Movement date
Leader of Black Consciousness Movement
Steve Biko
The successful strike action by workers in Durban
-wages dropped and working hours increased - 200 000 workers went in strike - wages were then increased and hours decreased
The liberation of Angola and Mozambique
- white minority rule overthrown (1975) after many years - Samora Machel, new leader of Mozambique, became great hero to South African Youth
Buntu Education and the introduction of Afrikaans as a medium of instruction
- South African High school students rejected Bantu education - Different organisations across he country organised boycotts - Afrikaans as a medium if instruction for some subjects was the catalyst for the 1976 Soweto Uprising
Soweto Uprising.
Students protested a new law requiring Afrikaans in all public schools Police opened fire, two children killed
Hector Pieterson
A black schoolchild who was the first victim of white riot police during the Soweto Riots.
Short term consequences of 1970s resistance
- workers stay away - 6 July:Government backed down on AMI (Afrikaans as a Medium of Instruction) - uprising spread to rest of SA - police brutality
Long term consequences of 1970s resistance
- beginning of the end if apartheid - 14 000 students joined MK - October 1977: Government banned BCM organizations - International Media Attention - 1977 UN full arms embargo on SA
Tricameral Parliament (1983)
A parliament with three separate chambers
United Democratic Front (UDF).
Several anti-apartheid movements joined together to urge people not to vote for separate parliaments
Million Signatures Campaign.
UDF trying to bring all the oppressed people together, regardless of race or culture
February 1990
- Scrapped all apartheid laws - Unbanned political parties - Released prisoners
Conflict in 1990 to 1994
- 14 000 died and 20 000 injured - ANC - IFP Violence (leadership vacuum to be filled and pre-existing the ethnic tension flared-up) - White conservatives also making their last stand
Democratic election 1994
1. Millions of people who had never voted before stood in queues to make their mark 2. When votes were counted it was clear that the ANC was the ruling party in South Africa 3. They want 62.65 per-cent of the vote. 4. Nelson Mandela was inaugurated as South Africa's first democratically elected president