Unit 1 Junior Year Biology (Macromolecules, Water, Biochemistry)

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what type of bond is between one molecule of water
polar covalent
what type of bond is between two molecules of water
hydrogen bonds
properties of water
versatile solvent, cohesion/adhesion, heat of vaporization (latent heat), high specific heat, less dense as a solid
versatile solvent
Water's ability to dissolve more solutes than any other solvent due to polarity
cohesion: water bonds to water adhesion: water bonds to anything else
heat of vaporization
The amount of energy required for the liquid at its boiling point to become a gas/ latent heat/ ability to turn into a gas
high specific heat
ability to regulate temperature
less dense as a solid
ice floats
nonpolar hydrophobic does what with water
repels it
building blocks of polymers
three or more monomers covalently bonded
anabolic/synthesis reactions
building stores energy by making bonds enzyme is needed water is removed DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS/CONDENSATION REACTION
dehydration synthesis
water is removed to bond molecules
catabolic/digestion reactions
releases energy enzyme needed water is added HYDROLYSIS
adding water to break bonds
catabolic feeds...
carbohydrates functions
immediate energy/raw materials
carbohydrates components
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
carbohydrates formula
ch2o bc 1:2:1 ratio of c:h:o
what is every point on a carbon hexagon
every point is a carbon unless labelled otherwise
C6 H12 O6 hexagon
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carbohydrate monomer
polymers of carbs
cellulose, chitin, starch, glycogen
polymers of carbs that give structure
animal chitin plant cellulose
polymer carbs storage
plant starch animal glycogen
how to build a sugar
hydroxyl groups connect
glycosidic linkage
2 sugars bonded covalently (by dehydration synthesis?)
a standalone 5 or 6 sided ring is usually a
alpha glucose
hydroxyl on bottom
beta glucose
hydroxyl on top
cell walls of plants and fungi
exoskeleton of insects
lipid components
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
lipids functions
long term energy storage insulation and protection cell membrane
why are lipids so energetic
have a lot of hydrogen and hydrogen has energy
monomers of lipids
no true monomers bc no repeating subunits
monomers of lipids if we are being lax about it
glycerol and fatty acids
classes of lipids
fats, oils, waxes, steroid hormones
3 carbons attached to 3 OH
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ester linkage
bond between hydroxyl of glycerol and carboxyl of fatty acid
saturated fats
carbon to carbon bonds are single covalent bonds solid at room temperature animal fats
unsaturated fats
carbon to carbon bonds have at least one double bond liquid at room temperature plant fats
phospholipid structure
hydrophilic head two hydrophobic fatty acid tails; one saturated, one unsaturated
phoshpolipid where
cell membrane
head of a phospholipid composition
choline phosphate glycerol hydrophilic
protein components
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur
protein monomer
amino acid
How many amino acids are there?
amino acid structure
Central carbon atom Amino group Carboxyl group Single hydrogen Variable R group
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protein polymer
protein function
protein bond name
peptide bond
peptide bond
between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid
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terminuses of a polypeptide chain
N terminus and C terminus
n terminus
exposed amino
c terminus
exposed carboxyl
primary structure of protein
single polypeptide chain nonfunctional protein
secondary structure of protein
single polypeptide chain nonfunctional protein local folding- alpha helices/beta pleated sheets bc of hydrogen bonds between amino and carboxyl groups
tertiary structure of protein
single polypeptide chain nonfunctional protein whole molecule folding bc of more hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, disulfide bridges, van der waals interactions hydrophobic interior folds
quaternary structure
three or more polypeptides bonded together fully functional protein
valence electrons are involved in-?
chemical reactions
most/96% of living matter is
c h o n
Most of the remaining 4% consists of
calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur
ionic bonds
salts and transfer of electrons with charges
covalent bonds
sharing of electrons
polar covalent
unequal sharing of electrons
nonpolar covalent
equal sharing of electrons
How many bonds can carbon make?
4 covalent bonds
carbon is the
backbone of life
carbon shapes
linear, branched, rings
glucose chemical formula
only contain carbon and hydrogen nonpolar
functional groups
directly involved in chemical reactions gives organic molecules their unique properties
alcohol, -OH
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ribose structure
five carbon ring with surrounding Os and Hs
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carbonyl locations
at end OR within organic molecule end is aldehyde within is ketone
carbonyl ketone
within carbon skeleton
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carbonyl aldehyde
end of carbon skeleton
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carboxylic acid
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amino group
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Thiols (R-SH)
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organic phosphates
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ionized phosphate form
no hydrogen it seems
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alkanes r-ch3
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