What are the commonalities between Rome and the Han dynasty?
Territories large, diverse populations; influence beyond their borders; ability to integrate diverse populations into their empires
What are the differences between Rome and the Han dynasty?
Types of ruling systems; how they ruled
What was the Qin Dynasty Warring states period?
Who is Qin Shi Huangdi?
First emperor of China (August Emperor)
What did Qin Shi Haungdi do during his reign?
Gained control of the rice fields, launching war campaigns to end the warring states period
What was one of the major accomplishments of the Qin Dynasty?
-standardized weights and measures used throughout the empire
-built canals and roads
What was another set of accomplishment of the Qin Dynasty?
-melted unnecessary weapons to prevent rebellions
-simplified a standard pictogram writing and language for 2000 years
What was a final set of accomplishments of the Qin Dynasty?
-Great Wall of China that kept the steppe raiders and barbarians away
-unified China and expanded in barbarian areas
What was the Qin Dynasty's ideology?
-didn't like confucianism
-used out of worry that the empire would fall before he die
-most practical; believing in law and reason unlike confucianism
Who were the Terracotta Warriors?
Sculptures that were made out of Terracotta(clay) that protected Emperor Qin's tomb in order to protect the emperor in the afterlife.
-various stone chariots and horses
-not one was the same, very lifelike
Why were Terracotta Warriors buried along with Emperor Qin?
To protect him in the afterlife
How long did the Han Dynasty Last?
206 BCE – 221 CE
What was the Han Dynasty's ruling system?
-civil magistrates and bureaucrats
-followed past dynasties
-brought back confucian doctrine
Who is Sima Qian?
An astronomer, calendar expert, and the first great Chinese historian. Most noted for his authorship of the Shiji (“Historical Records”), which is considered to be the most important history of China down to the end of the 2nd century.
What did Sima Qian write?
-wrote The Records of the Grand Historian in 91 BC
-wrote works that had more worth at this time; analytical and narrative, with motives for social work
What was different about Sima Qian from the rest of China?
-had a firmer sense of the Han Dynasty than anyone else in East Asia
Who is Emperor Wu? (Han Wudi)
-the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of ancient China, ruling from 141 to 87 BC
What did Han Wudi do?
-organized the military forces and stabilized the Han Dynasty
-pushed borders to the same borders of today’s China
-rebuilt the empire after the fall of the Qin, laying groundwork of India connection
Han Dynasty's Life facts
roughly 25% of the world’s population(57M), from oldest census in existence
-relative peace compared to other dynasties
-thrived for 1500 years
What did the Han Dynasty Trade?
-swapped grain and crafts for horses and hides of pastoralists
What was the Han Dynasty's role in the Silk Road
-Silk Road: China to Mediterranean Sea through maritime trade(study of human interaction with and activity at sea)
-gold and silk across Afro-Eurasia, keeping people employed + funded dynasty’s wars and roads that helped them expand and fight border wars
Government monopolies of the Han Dynasty
-exclusive possession of trade in a service/commodity
-salt, iron, bronze, alcohol kept prices stable (paper +porcelain privately)
-benefitted state treasury and population
-required taxes in the form of money in 5CE, minting 200 million coins annually
What was the Han Dynasty's State Ideology?
-brought back Confucian doctrine: ethics, morality, obedience
What was the Scholar-bureaucrat tradition?
-started employing based off mastery of Confucianism instead of family
-imperial bureaucracy made of humanistic scholars
-like the caste system but not organized by money made
-producers were more important than non producers
-merchants made up around 1% of the population and usually had more money than the rest
-women weren’t included
What was the Treatment & role of Women in Han society
-women acquired power through men, having no rights or education
-silk production gave women opportunities to do work through weaving silk
What were the three obediences in the Han Society for Women?
Father, Husband, Sons
-They had to obey all of the three above
What were Eunuchs?
a man who has been castrated(cannot have babies anymore)
What were the purpose of Eunuchs?
as guards and servants in harems or other women's quarters, and as chamberlains to kings
-had individual influence in the government
-men were castrated to avoid any sons that may overthrow empire
What type of ruling system did the Romans use?
- 7 kings -> Birth of Republic -> Emperors (Julio-Claudian Dynasty, Flavian Dynasty)
A. Cursus honorum: 2 consuls, senate, plebs (common ppl) and patricians (aristocrats)
B. The tribunes were the backbone of the senate
What was the Treatment of religion in Rome?
-Tolerated all religions
-Hated Christians then became the Christians
What role did the Etruscans play?
-people who temporarily ruled Rome; traded with them
-Many features of Etruscans adopted by the Romans
What was Roman Citizenship like?
BEGINNING: full rights only for actual Romans
LATER: Rome extended citizenship rights to conquered
Who was Romulus (and Remus)?
-1st king of Rome, killed brother Remus
-Founder of Rome, built Rome on the Palatine Hill
What was the Roman Republic (cursus honorum) like?
- 2 consuls and a senate; citizens get to vote for ppl in the senate (sort of)
- SPQR: plebians win equality, citizens are (mostly) equal
How did the Roman Empire begin?
-Starts with Augustus (Caesar’s adopted son)
Who was apart of the Julio Claudian Dynasty?
Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero
Who was apart of the Flavian Dynasty?
Vespasian, Titus, Domitian
- Vespasian created the colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater)
Who were the 5 good emperors?
Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonious Pious, Marcus Aurelius
What did Trajan do?
Trajan built the forum (trajan’s forum)
What did Hadrian do?
Hadrian built the wall that’s in Britain (Hadrian’s Wall)
What did Marcus Aurelius do?
known for stoicism and expanded military
What is Pax Romana?
-Created by Augustus, economic upswing & growth of city
Who was Cicero?
-Was THE Roman orator; wrote many controversial speeches and eventually got beheaded by Mark Antony
Who was Julius Caesar?
Julius Caesar, was a Roman general and statesman
- A member of the First Triumvirate
What did Julius Caesar do?
-led the Roman armies in the Gallic Wars before defeating his political rival Pompey in a civil war
-Had 1 kid w/ Cleopatra
-Declared himself dictator for life -> Senate murdered him
-Caesar left his will to Octavius (adopted son)
Who was Octavian Augustus Caesar?
- Julius Caesar's son
- 1st Emperor (v good, ruling time: 43 yrs); had absolute power, princeps (1st senator)
What did Octavian do?
-Adopted son of Caesar, first emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty
Created Pax Romana under his rule
Who was Romulus Augustulus?
-Last emperor; child emperor, not good ruler
-Overthrown by Odacer the barbarian
Who was Odoacer?
-Germanic king who overthrew Romulus in 476
What is Zoroastrianism?
An Iranian religion and one of the world's oldest organized faiths, based on the teachings of the Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster. It has a dualistic cosmology of good and evil within the framework of a monotheistic ontology and an eschatology which predicts the ultimate conquest of evil by good.
sacred text of Zoroastrianism
teaches an elaborate dualistic cosmology describing the struggle between a good, spiritual world of light, and an evil, material world of darkness.
Details of Manichaeism
-rivaled Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and Buddhism; blend of all three
-code of conduct: restraint and non-violence
-struggle b/w good(spiritual and abstract) and evil(material and worldy)
-Asasanid Charpeur the 1st made this state religion
-flourished along silk road to china
-underground, overshadowed by zoro, but left huge imprint
Who is Mani?
-founder of Manichaeism
-eternal salvation for the faithful
-provided hope: praised poor, wrong, “sinners”, frowned on wealthy
-scattered around cities->rickety organization, 1% of population
-persecuted and killed like the Jews, treated as a cult
-Christian apathy and kindness appealed to non-christians, especially during the 160 epidemics and political chaos; resistance and martyrdom appeal
Who is Mary?
-virgin mother of Jesus
-ascended in body + spirit
Who is Jeus?
-son of god
-represented as ordinary man, died for salvation of Christians
Who was Diocletian?
-last of emperors to persecute Christians
-object of worship as an emperor
What did Constantine do?
-converted suddenly; ending persecution of all religions bc of a vision
-changed the rickety minority faith to a solid state religion
-supported an imperial massive religion, supporting communities outside of Roman empire
-structure, control tied with government
-ethical monotheism borrowed from other religions
-converted people ‘top down’ through higher elites
What were Bishops?
-spread across territories to preside over different people
-acts as leaders of the communities
Who was the Pope?
-bishop of rome, leader of faith
-top of hierarchy and primary leader over Church’s personnel
- "dwelling alone”
-appeared in Egypt, act of self exiling to monasteries with like-minded people
-religious vows subject to fixed rule: poverty, chastity, obedience
-caused from disagreements over doctrine->Christianity divides
-Byzantine Empire discussed it to avoid political division->Nicean Creed created in 325 CE
-devoted to faith and made sacrifices for Christianity
-mediants b/w God and the people, elevated to the role posthumous
-revered by Christians
What are Monks?
-grew in small monasteries on Mt Sinai cohesive and small, then broke
-under religious vows; simple life (see monasticism)
-2nd monotheistic religion
-located in Arabia and Medina, where most people are polytheistic and surviving through raiding. Hard to make a living
-respected, married man that often traded
-hears voice that he is a messenger of God while he is under solitary confinement
-elite harasses him, sending away his followers, and his loved ones die:(
-muhammad’s wife who had 6 children with him at 25
-had a reputation of good judgment in medina
-sets up a ‘mosque’, a community of muslim followers
-set up a “year of flight to Medina”, the 1st yr of their calendar in 622 CE
-dies in a Medina mosque in 632 after going on a mecca pilgrimage again
-did not like him, tried to kill him
-muhammad won 3 battles against them, winning the mecca population in 630
-political power extended out of Arabia, after inviting elite to join faith
-“recitation”, Islamic sacred text
People of the Book
-Jews, Christians, muslims that follow the sacred texts of the subregional story; prophets of God
-”the path” divinely sanctioned law and ethics in Islamic faith
-minority population of the faith
-regarded as heretics
-majority population in the faith
Pillars of Islam
1.profess one god: allah and his messenger muhammad
2. Pray 5 times a day
3. Give alms to the needy
4. Fast during the day during the Ramandan month
5. Make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a life time if possible
Women in Christianity & Islam
-provides new opportunities for women
-figures like Mary and Fatimah that are respected
-marriage is consensual, wives treated well->they obey their husband
-women could inherit property, land, or wealth
-monasteries for women: nuns with religious authority
-improved role of orphans, increased childcare and textiles
Caliph (The Arab Conquests)
-Deputy of God=successor to Muhamad
-Didn’t know if next one should be from Muhamad’s family
-Ali becomes the 4th Caliph; winners of war beat Ali
Area ruled by a cliph (need to check)
-Allowed ppl to have own religions but couldn’t question their power
-Did tax muslims at higher rate than others
-Relied on Arab tribes to spread what they want’ over time ppl started to leave, so they needed a new reason to stay powerful
Dome of the Rock
-Built in 681 by Greek architects
Where the Umayyad set up base
-Muslim area of Spain; an Ummayad that survived the Abasid makes caliphate there
-Called the Cordoba Caliphate
-Got money from trade and irrigation agriculture
-The restoration of Christian rule to Iberian Peninsula
-They were finding ways to get rid of caliphate which was fragmented by politics
-The Muslims were pushed to Ganda— South of Spain
-Decrease in agriculture development
-Had large trade deficit and was in debt to the East
-Military transformed into mercenaries who had no loyalty to the Rome
-Roman cities all created walls to try keeping invaders out
-Civil violence begins to spike
-Roman emperor in 313
-ended persecution of all religions and made christianity the state religion
-undermined its own religion; considered one god->weakened state credibility
-splits Rome in 330
-capital of the Byzantine Empire
an Islamic state ruled by the Umayyad dynasty from 929 to 1031
Dissolution of Western Roman Empire
-decrease of agricultural production->traded w East but couldn’t return anything->increased coinage->reduced reliability->inflation->corruption
-military contained unloyal mercenaries that were paid defending Rome against own germanic tribes
Sack of Rome - Germanic Tribes
-Sack of Rome: looted, killed, raped by Germanic tribes
-Romulus Augustulus overthrown by Odaecer in 476
-increased walls and fortifications
-collapsed in 370->civil violence->lowered populations
-simplified economic life. Dark Ages. elites serve no purpose and production lowers
Slavery in the Caliphates
-needed slave labor
-People of the Book were spared from slavery, but pagans suited slavery
-near the 6th to 8th centuries there was a higher demand for strong male slaves and women and children for textiles
-forced to fight in armies with childhood training
-raised as slave soldiers
-used for islamic rulers’ security->new trade routes and culture unity with Spain and Iran
Basil the Bulgar-Slayer
-one of the strongest byzantine emperors
-noted for blinding the Bulgarian soldiers
-won over many ms territories
Introduction of Buddhism
-Mahayana Buddhism: most prevalent & brought over by monks (also influenced contemplation)
-Put high value on monasticism “dwelling alone”
- Went to monasteries to live in seclusion from the world and devote themselves to practicing religion
-Had ideal of release from cycle of life and death for rebirth instead of Daoist principle of eternal life
Why did women prefer Buddhism more?
-Women found Buddhism more appealing bc you don’t have to obey males
-Han Dynasty collapses -> ppl have more self doubt and turn to Daoism
-Encouraged bureaucrats to fall into contemplation
-Eternal life was the goal, tried to accumulate religious merit
-Saw confucianists’ emphasis on society as unnatural
-Mahayana Buddhist monk who translated the Buddhist sutras into Chinese texts
-Reason why Buddhism was able to spread easily; translated in language everybody could understand
Ppl move near Yangzi R. for better agriculture; climate is WARMER
A. Warm climate -> white mulberry -> silkworms -> increased silk production
- Labor intensive, made by women, east asian secret (chinese made best silk)
A. Made having daughters more desirable because women produced for empire
Sui Dynasty- Sui Wendi
-first emperor in 300yrs of unified china
-started making Grand Canal
-had huge unifying effects
-allowed safer travel for merchants and easier rice transportation
-reduced how bad famines were
-expanded and fortified wall to the North of China
Tang Dynasty- Type of ruling system
-everyone had to obey the law and punishment was based off status
-built postal system
Religion under the Tang
Rule of Avoidance
-Officials can’t govern the region from which they came from; they had to govern
Civil Service Examinations
-way of finding government officials
-created academics to teach confucianism
-system allowed talented ppl from all statuses to get power
-encouraged development of social and political elite that put value in education over military
-”most powerful woman in the world”
-family allowed connection to royal house, and she had education
- wife of next emperor and she gained more and more power
-good politician, supported Buddhism; Confucious elites didn’t like her; she oversaw new infastructure—canals, docks, marketplaces
-tried spreading vegetarian eating
-policies allowed for more porsperty and she pushed for more trade
Religion under Wu Zetian
-give panda to ppl in alliance
-Tang capital and had a population of 2 million at peak
- had wide avenues which made it more livable
Printing - Wu Zetian Era
-allowed texts to be easier to read and allowed for more info to be spread
Treatment of Women
- Tang Dynasty
-able to manage marriage
-men were taxed by textiles and women made the textiles
-women could play games like polo
-elite women sometimes had political power
Bride price - China
-money given to bride family by the groom
-made women become a little more important
Mesoamerican Empires - Maya
-Lived in area near Yucatan Peninsula (Belize, the little ‘C’ in Mexico)
-Used a lot of manual labor
A. Maize, beans, squash (THREE SISTERS!!!!!!)
Importance of Maize
-Held religious significance
-According to creation myth, the Mayans were made from maize
-Provided food that was easy to store in case of famine
Types of Farming
-Raised bed agriculture
A. Systems of ditches and canals
A. Areas w/ high altitudes, dug into ground to create terraces and farm
A.“Slash and burn” technique to clear forests and replace it with maize, beans, and squash
Major Products: Salt, Jade & Obsidian
A. Exported high-quality salt
-Excelled in jade carving and obsidian
-Used obsidian because they had no metallurgy
Valley of Mexico
-Fertile farming valley that the Zapotecs and Teotihuacan lived in
-Did not have large river like in China
A. Lacked extensive resources for monuments
Cities were like territorial states
-Similar to greek city-states
A. Very close to each other, but VERY different societies, religions and customs (Athens vs. Sparta)
Mayan Social Hierarchy
2. Priesthood & Nobles(often part of the royal family)
3. Merchants, Skilled workers, Artisans
Importance of Math
-had multiple calendars and you had to be good with numbers to perform the rituals on time
-developed the concept of zero
-day of reckoning was the 4th day on the calendar
-couldn’t be priest without math
-a ball game with a rubber ball that was as big as a grapefruit; it was a team game, and it might have been a divination scenario
-might have been played by war captives
-killed farming within a 50-75 mile radius for 200yrs
A. Fertile land -> Farming villages w/ spike walls to keep ppl out
B. Language different from Mayans & still spoken today
C. Monte Alban pyramids: flat, square-like
-lacked water but defensively good
-Had villages that grew maize surrounded them
-had about 10k ppl
Teotihuacán (100-700CE, Mexico City)
-Designed on a grid system
A. No real evidence of ball courts, writing, calendars
B. Heart of city: avenue of dead
-Raised bed agriculture (3 sisters)
A. controlled obsidian; larger role in long-distance trade
- Main religious pyramid: Pyramid of Sun
A. ONLY ones to worship female deity; human sacrifice
Avenue of the Dead (similar to via sacra)
-In the heart of the Teotihuacan city (middle)
A. Long road w/ houses on the sides
B. ends with a court surrounded by pyramids that citizens can worship
Pyramid of the Sun
-Main religious pyramid of the Teotihuacan
A. NOT on the avenue of the dead, much larger than the other pyramids
-Maybe goddess of the underworld; Teotihuacan Spider Woman
A. Comes w/ bird headdress, appears only in Teotihuacan
-1 of 8 gods
\-750CE: overthrew Umayyads and moved east to settle in Baghdad
a. Controlled most of islamic world except for S. Spain (umayyads)
\- 1258CE: orthodox Sunni Muslims and isolate Shia supporters
a. One of the main reasons why their empire collapsed; didn’t have political unity
**Islamic Golden Age**
\-Muslims contribute to everything and either: invent new things or preserve old things from the past (mainly preservations of Greek texts)
\-Good relations w/ China and Silk Road trading
**Type of ruling system in Islamic Age - Caliphs**
Main ruler, similar to king
**Type of ruling system in Islamic Age -** Vizier
**Type of ruling system in Islamic Age -** Provincial governors
Ppl that collect taxes
**Type of ruling system in Islamic Age -** Relied on force to rule empire
Hired turkish ppl as slave guards -> didn’t work out because they ended up killing the caliphs later on
Head minister of abbasid caliphate that relies on provincial governors
Ruling system didn’t really work because provincial governors were shady
A. Not honest, created own states, started to break away from Abbasids