Chinese Civil War Noun Check

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I am once again asking for your financial support for my making of this Quizlet 2-3 terms are blank, if you know them lmk, thanks

144 Terms
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foreign devils
imperialist powers including Britain, France, and Japan who exploited China's economic assets.
foreign concessions/foreign enclaves
areas in china governed by foreign powers also had foreign laws
International Settlement
area in Shanghai that included many non-Chinese and operated as an independent city.
bourgeois classes
middle class property owners
"communism", policy that the CCP aligned more with, the people would revolt, class warfare, government would retain absolute power.
the working class in industrialized society, would lead the class revolution in Marxism.
guerrilla style campaign
CCP's fighting style - small groups burst fighting
mobile defense
- new CCP strategy - successful - protect territory-don't expand, weaken enemy via ambush - kinda like an anaconda
avg citizens in army
recruitment gangs
- Sent to countryside to get troops by Nationalists - used brutal methods
corvee labor
a labor tax of unpaid work by CCP
cooperative farms
individually owned but collectively managed and worked farms
collective farms
no individual ownership, collectively managed farms
military commander - Chiang
Pu Yi
Last emperor of China
Yuan Shikai
- used military power to get power after collapse of the Qing dynasty - death created power vacuum
Sun Yatsen
established Nationalist Party (1912) inspired "three principles of the people"
Chiang Kai-shek
leader of nat. party -> chairman of nat. gov
General Ba Chongxi
anti-commie general under Chiang, led the White Terror
Otto Braun
German general - told commies to get rid of guerilla - bad idea - got booted out
Mao Zedong
- leader of CCP - created "Maoism"
Liu Wenhui
- nat. war lord - led clash at Luding Bridge
Yan Xishan in Shanxi
- regional warlord - Chiang made alliance w/ him
Zhang Xueliang in Manchuria
- regional warlord - Chiang made alliance w/ him
Dai Li
head of the Investigation and Statistical Bureau
- Chiang's relatives - Chiang promoted and relied on them -> corruption
General Joseph Stilwell
- U.S. commander - said Chiang is corrupt and incompetent
General Albert C. Wedemeyer
- US Army chief - said Chiang made mistake @ shanhaiguan pass by diverting troops from important areas
Lin Biao
Chinese commander under Mao; trained at Chiang Kai-shek's Whampoa Academy in the 1920s
Fu Zuoyi
- Nationalist commander - surrendered Beijing
Dean Acheson
- US secretary of state - said U.S aid shoulda been good enough for Nationalists to win, they didn't win cuz Nationalists sucked
George Marshall
- US general - unify nats and commies in non-commie gov to act as a wall for soviets
Madame Chiang
- Wife of Chiang Kai-shek - Incresed US support for the Chinese Civil War- Nationalist
"Three Principles of the People"
Nationalist ideology nationalism, popular sovereignty, and the principle of the people's livelihood - inspired by Sun yatsen
"Manifesto of the First National Congress of the Nationalist Party"
The nationalist document containing the Three Principles of the People
"principle of the people's livelihood"
aimed to improve the welfare of the people - redistribute land - nationalization - state support
Mao Zedong Thought
Mao's interpretation of Marxism - make marxism fit in china - peasant revolution
New Life Movement
- nationalist - encourage morals and obedience to state
Treaty of Tanggu
Chiang acknowledged independence of Manchukuo to Japan
trading space for time
- Chiang's strategy to not engage Japan and wait because they'd spread themselves thin - showed Chiang as weak
Strongpoint Offensive
lack of success in Manchuria prompted Chiang to focus on cities in central and eastern provinces
urban strategic focus
- focus on holding key cities across multiple provinces without securing the countryside - left Nationalist forces overextended and vulnerable to seige
social revolution
overthrow of society's state and class structures and creation of new ones
On New Democracy by Mao
- Maos book - how china will pursue a different path to democracy
general mobilization bill
- issued by Chiang to give nats. unrestricted power of conscripts
Civil Code of 1930
- Divorce is ok - arranged marriage no more - equal inheritance
labor law in 1931
- women should be payed same as men
Marriage Law of May 1950
- divorce is ok - no arranged marriage - husband can't divorce pregnant wife
Gansu and Shaanxi Provinces
severe famine
Hunan Province
- rents frequently 70% of the value of crops produced - Autumn Harvest Uprising took place here
- large urban area - lots of death in slums - International Settlement
- 2nd CCP counterattack here - nats won
Jiangxi Soviet
post white terror base for soviet leaders
Yanan Province
new base for CCP after long march
Japan occupied, then when they left, conflict started here again btwn CCP and nats
puppet state of Manchukuo
idk, text me if you have it plz
- Nationalists moved capital here during the second Sino-Japanese War - citizens felt gov abandoned them
CCP in strong position to take
Japanese arms depot that the Soviets gave the CCP access to
Shanhaiguan Pass
- first confrontation - nat won but this diverted troops
CCP's last urban stronghold in Manchuria
Sangari River Camp
CCP inflicted considerable casualties on Nationalists and captured their weaponry
Shijiazhuang in Hebei province
first major city captured by the CCP
second major city captured by the CCP
separatist regions of Tibet and Xinjiang
outside of CCP and NAT control until after war
Opium Wars
Wars between Britain and the Qing Empire (mid 1800s), caused by the Qing government's refusal to let Britain import Opium. China lost and Britain and most other European powers were able to develop a strong trade presence throughout China against their wishes.
Taiping Rebellion
(1850-1864) A revolt by the people of China against the ruling Manchu Dynasty because of their failure to deal effectively with the opium problem and the interference of foreigners.
Hundred Days of Reform
A series of Western-style reforms launched in 1898 by the Chinese government in an attempt to meet the foreign challenge.
Boxer Rebellion
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils" - ended by brit troops
First Sino-Japanese War
conflict between China and Japan in 1894-1895 over control of Korea
Revolution of 1911-1912
inspired by Nationalist Party ideals, caused the Qing Dynasty to collapse
May Fourth Movement
A 1919 protest in China against the Treaty of Versailles and foreign influence
The Northern Expedition
CCP and nationalist joint campaign to defeat warlords
White Terror
- attacks on CCP by green gang - sanctioned by Chiang
Autumn Harvest Uprising
- First CCP uprising - Guerilla style - Nats won
encirclement campaigns
- nationalist gov aim to destroy commies - defensive victory for commies first 4 times
Fifth Encirclement Campaign
only successful encirclement campaign by Nationalists
Battle at Guangchang
- CCP counterattack to fifth encirclement campaign - FAIL - CCP Evacuation
Long March
- CCP retreat to Yunan while being followed by nats - 20k of 90k survived
Clashes at Luding Bridge over the Dadu River
- CCP fought Lin Wenhuis troops here
Zunyi Conference
- January 1935 during the Long March - declared that Mao was leader of the party.
9 December Movement
students demonstrated against Japanese invasions and Chiang's response
Xi'an Incident
the warlord Zhang Xueliang was supposed to attack a CCP base but instead turned on Chiang and kidnapped him. Chiang was released after agreeing to the Second United Front
guerrilla campaigns
initiated against Japan by CCP
Rectification of Conduct Campaigns
Mao punished those in CCP that criticized him
Marco Polo Bridge
- Chinese and Japanese clashed here - started second Sino-Japanese War
Rape of Nanjing
Japanese captured this city and raped, tortured, and killed thousands of civilians
capital moved to Chongqing
- Nationalists moved to a new capital during second Sino-Japanese War - meant to be strategic, seen as weak
Hundred Regiments Campaign
- CCP attack on Jap - destroy rail
Ichigo Offensive
Jap offense to sweep south
Manchuria campaign
CCP captured many cities in Manchuria
CCP's Haui-hai Campaign
campaign focus on cities - starved them out through winter and cut resources
Pingjin Campaign
- CCP decimates Nationalists - Chiang attempted peace talks, Mao says no
surrender of Beijing
Fu Zuoyi surrendered it
Dixie Mission
- US visit to Yan'an in July 1944 - effort to gather info and make relations w CCP
Chiang Kai-shek to Taiwan
- Chiang fled here after losing the war - Still claimed to be the official government
Three-Antis Campaign of 1951
first campaign to eradicate CCP enemies
Five-Antis Campaign of January 1952
second campaign to eradicate CCP enemies
Reunification Campaigns
meant to assimilate Tibet into peoples republic - suppressed Taiwan's history and religion
First Taiwan Strait Crisis
ROC established troops on islands in the Taiwanese Strait by mainland china, PRC shelled it
context of Cold War
in 1954, the US wanted to make sure the conflict didn't escalate, authorized by congress to defend Taiwan from communism
Second Taiwan Strait Crisis
- 1958 - tensions flared, similar results to the first crisis
wealthy ppl with private armies established themselves as regional dictator
unified and independent China, led by Chiang Kai-shek
Chinese Communist Party (CCP)
- The authoritarian party that has ruled China from 1949 to the present - Mao Is leader
- group of revolutionary Russian Marxists who took control of Russia's government in November 1917 - inspired resistance across the world - gave assistance to CCP
Communist International, international association of communist parties led by the Soviet Union for the purpose of encouraging worldwide communist revolution.
First and Second United Front
CCP and Nationalists unison to eliminate other groups like warlords and Jap in china
Green Gang
- criminal organization who led White Terror - Nationalists
League of Nations
- an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations - led negotiations and mediated
Nationalists vs. Red Army
Nat- cities Reds- Country
Special Company of the 2nd Independent Division of the Chinese Red Army
female only unit in the Red Army
Order Keeping Committees
monitor neighbors and colleagues and make sure they weren't anti communist
People's Liberation Army (PLA)
The combined armed forces of the People's Republic of China, which includes land, sea, air, and strategic missile forces
Qing Dynasty
(1644-1911) - the last imperial dynasty of China overthrown by revolutionaries - anti-western
Republic of China
(1912-1949), took place after the Qing dynasty, Nationalist party tried to unite China
Warlord Period
- 1916-1927 - warlords ruled China with no central power
First United Front
- 1923-1927 - CCP and Nationalists united to eliminate warlords.
Nanjing Period
- 1927-1937 - Nationalist rule, a period of modernization and growth
First Civil War China
not sure what to put here, text me if you have an idea
World War II
- 1935-46 - contributed to end of Japanese rule in China
Yanan Era
- 1935-1946 - CCP moved here in the countryside and got peasant support - Mao accepted as leader
Second Civil War
- 1945-1949 - after end of second Sino-Japanese War - nats originally had advantage, CCP worked to win
Second Sino-Japanese War
- 1937-1945 - Japan extended control throughout China - Nats. and CCP worked together to defeat Jap
Second United Front
- 1936-1941 - When nationalists and communists united again to resist japan
Whampoa Military Academy
- CCP training academy - many who attended held senior positions
land-reform policies
- land given to peasants - kill the landlords evolved to collective and co-operative farms
role of U.S. and USSR
- US gave the Nationalists aid - USSR gave the CCP aid
Investigation and Statistical Bureau
CCP organization of network of spies to eliminate Nationalist opponents
Anti-Japanese University
- CCP - train recruits for war against Japan
Communist People's Republic China (PRC)
Maos party after CCP win
Republic of China (ROC)
Chiang's government in Taiwan
Korean War
- another commie v anti-commie war - U.S played big role due to the failures in China and how that resulted in increase commie control
President Eisenhower
stood firm against communism
Formosa Revolution
authorized US troops to Taiwan in the First Taiwan Strait Crisis
Vietnam War
- interventionist policy by U.S due to loss in China
James Sheridan's China in Disintegration
examines Chiang and the Nationalists during the war
Lily Xiao Hong Lee & Sue Wiles' Women of the Long March
contains details from women who participated in the march, their hardships.
Immanuel Hsu's The Rise of Modern China
textbook covering 400 years of Chinese history, believed Nationalists was so depleted that it could not cope with the postwar era
Jack Gray's Rebellions and Revolutions: China from the 1880's to the 1980's
covers Chinese history from 1800's-2000's, believed Nationalists tried to figure out their problems but they failed.
Odd Arne Westad's Restless Empire
examines China and their foreign affairs over 250 years.
Sun Shuyun's Long March
- reality of long march - showed it was exaggerated
Edgar Snow's Red Star over China
account of the CCP, Red Army, believed Long March was a great triumph.
Mao's poetry
- glorified CCP