General Biology Reviewer (Klyd) (copy)

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98 Terms
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Father of Biology/ Greatest Ancient Scientist.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
First single-lens microscope; Father of Microbiology/Microscope; Discovered animalcules
Rudolf Virchow
All living cells come from pre-existing living cells/Omnis cellula e cellula.
Robert Hooke
Father of Cytology ; Cell discovery in a thin slice of cork; Discovered the "cellula" (cells).
Robert Brown
He discovered the Nucleus.
Theodore Schwann
"All animals are composed of cells"
Matthias Schleiden
"All plants are composed of cells"
Thomas Beddoes
He introduced the term "Biology" in 1799.
Zacharias and Hans Janssen
Made the first compound microscope
Walther Flemming
Discovered the steps involved in cell division
Hermann Fol
The first person to see the union of egg and sperm cells
Ernst Ruska
Made the first electron microscope
Louis Pasteur
Microorganisms can cause contagious diseases
Jan Evangelista Purkinje
Thick, jelly-like protoplasm
Felix Dujardin
Internal, jelly-like substance "sarcode"
Robert Remak
He proved the idea of cell division by hardening of the cell membrane.
They already invented and experimented with glasses during the first century.
Study of the cells
It means "life"
It means "study"
An instrument that is used to observe objects that can't be seen by the unaided eye; Biologist use this as their chief investigation tool.
The word "lens" is derived from the latin word _____.
The procedure to use microscope; technical field in using microscope to view samples.
•Cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life. •All organisms are made up of cells. •Cells come from pre-existing cells.
3 basic cell theory
The building blocks of life
Tiny boxes
One celled
Many celled
Cell structures that perform these specific functions. Are like machines in a factory, each with a specific role.
•Cytoplasm •Nucleus •Cell membrane
Fundamental parts of cell
Machinery of the cell; Where the main metabolic life activities takes place.
Jelly-like substance that holds the cell organelles in place; site of many chemical reactions
Where the genetic material stored
DNA synthesis, RNA synthesis; assembly of ribosomes
Cell membrane
Surrounds the cytoplasm
Cell membrane
Separates cell from outside; controls what enters and leaves the cell; recognizes signals from other cells
Powerhouse of the cell; Conversion of chemical energy of food to chemical energy of ATP
Golgi body
Modification and transport of macromolecules; formation of lysosomes and transport vesicles
White blood cells
Most number of lysosomes
Rough ER
Synthesis of membrane lipids and proteins, secretory proteins, and hydrolytic enzymes; formation of transport vesicles; for production
Smooth ER
Lipid synthesis; detoxification in liver cells; to transport.
Protein synthesis / Makes protein
Suicide bag; Digestion of ingested food, bacteria, and a cell's damaged organelles and macromolecules for recycling
Food and fluid reservoir of the cell; digestion; storage of chemicals; cell enlargement; water balance.
Diverse metabolic processes, with breakdown of H²O² by-product
Helpers in cell division.
Structural support; movement; road for transportation; framework of cell
Cell wall
Nonliving permeable wall that surrounds the cell membrane; encloses and supports the cell
Eukaryotic cells
Contain nuclear materials enclosed by a nuclear membrane; True nucleus
Prokaryotic cells
Contains nuclear materials not enclosed by a nuclear membrane; Doesn't have a true nucleus
•Protozoa •Protists
2 types of eukaryotes or prokaryote.
group of cells, have the same functions as cell; are specialized, and their structure enables them to perform a specific task
Tissues group together
Organ system
Group of organs as one
Group of organ systems
Muscular tissues
have cells with the most mitochondria
Nervous tissue
type of tissue would make up the majority of the brain and spinal cord
Epithelial tissue
type of tissue that would be found in the epidermis; Structure through which the tissue is found
Epithelial Tissue
also called the epithelium, occur as sheets of tightly packed cells that cover body surfaces and line internal organs and cavities.
Simple Squamous Epithelial Tissue
type of tissue would be found in the blood vessels and respiratory tract; air sacs of the lung, blood vessels, heart
Basal Lamina
The apical (basal) surface of an epithelium is attached to the _
Muscular Tissues
helps cause movement and change in the shape of some body parts
Simple Epithelium
Has a single layer of cells
Stratified Epithelium
Has multiple layers
Pseudostratified epithelium
Single layered but appears stratified because the cells vary in length
Squamous epithelial tissues
Have flat cells like floor tiles.
Columnar epithelial tissue
Have brick like cells on end
Cuboidal Epithelial Tissues
Have cube cells like dice; Kidney tubules, glands, surface of ovary
Stratified Squamous Epithelial Tissue
Skin; Vagina; Esophagus; Mouth
Simple Columnar Epithelial Tissue
Usually lined up with microvilli, type of cell modification that helps in increasing the surface area for absorption; Digestive track, gall bladder, excretory ducts of some glands.
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelial Tissue
Type of tissue usually lined with cilia, type of cell modification that sweeps the mucus; Bronchi, trachea, uterine tubes, some portions of the uterus
Connective Tissue
helps protect, support, and bind organs and other tissues.
Connective tissue
type of tissue would form ligaments, tendons, fat and bone
Loose Areolar Connective Tissue
Soft and pliable tissue that acts as packing and binding material throughout the body; Skin, organs, glands, blood vessels, peripheral nerves
Fibrous Connective Tissue
Linkage of muscles and bones; Tendons and ligaments
Adipose Tissue
Stores fat as food reserve , pads and insulates the body, protects the skin and other organs, and stores energy; Parts with fat storage
Consists of chondrocytes that form a strong but flexible skeletal material; ends of bones, respiratory tract, sutures, ear, nose, epiglottis, intervertebral discs
Supportive Tissue
Consists of osteoblast that form a matrix of collagen fibers embedded in calcium salts; Bones
Vascular Tissue
Consists of liquid extracellular matrix called plasma and formed elements, functions to transport substances from one part of the body to another and in immunity; Blood
Nervous Tissue
senses stimuli and transmits signals called nerve impulses.
Conveys signals from its tip toward the rest of the neuron
Transmit signals toward another neuron or to a muscle cell
membrane-bound organelle found in the cells of plants; colored pigments
Colored plastid
Green Plastid; Conversation of light energy to chemical energy of sugars.
White/colorless plastid
Cardiac Muscle
Striated, involuntary muscle; Heart muscle
Smooth Muscle
Not striated, involuntary muscle; Walls of digestive tract, respiratory passages, urinary and genital organs, blood vessels
Skeletal Muscle
Striated, voluntary muscle; Muscles attached to the bones
A special modification in bacteria particularly as a defense mechanism to heat, high pressure, and stress.
Flexible membrane extensions used by microorganisms and sperm cells in animals.
flexible membrane extensions used by microorganisms and egg cells in animals.
Cellular projections that act like false feet.
Pili (pilus)
are modifications that enable a bacteria to adhere to tissue surfaces.
are specialized cells for transmitting electrical signals that need to travel relatively long distances to various parts of the body.
Actin and myosin
are specialized proteins in muscle cells that permit the muscle to contract and elongate for organism activity.
Enucleated red blood cells
Does not contain a nucleus but contains large amounts of hemoglobin to transport oxygen throughout the body.
Root hairs
Specialized epidermal cells that increase the apparent area of roots; Play an important role in plant nourishment by enabling the absorption of minerals and water from the environment.