Case Study Exam

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Borrelia burgdorferi (gram - bacteria)
-Tick borne (ixodes tick) -spiral -stiff neck -causes lymes disease -bulls eye rash, fever, fatigue, arthritis
Escherichia coli (gram - bacteria)
-fecal orally -shiga toxin -food poisoning, travelers diarrhea -raw veggie & uncooked meat
Haemophilus influenzae (gram - bacteria)
-rod -zoonosis -upper & lower respiratory infection -can affect circulatory & nervous system -HiB -Virulence: capsule
Helicobacter pylori (gram - bacteria)
-fecal oral -virulence: neutralizes stomach acids (able to survive acid environments) -stomach ulcers
Neisseria meningitidis (gram - bacteria)
-coccus -tiny flat lesions -belt of Africa -lack of appetite, sluggish/lack of sleep, confused, vomiting, sensitive to light, stiff neck -antibiotic ceftriaxone -lumbar puncture
Salmonella typhi (gram - bacteria)
-Virulence: changes shape -vomiting & diarrhea, fever, inflammation of small & large intestine, skin rash
Bacillus anthracis (gram + bacteria)
-endospores -rod -breathing in endospores, ingesting endospores, getting endospores in cut -charcoal black ulcers on skin, pneumonia, brain damage due to swelling, high fever, difficulty breathing, coughing up blood, vomiting, chest pain -multiple failed organs (Shock) -once endospores are inhaled, they infect to cause release of toxins & edema & cell death
Clostridium botulinum (gram + bacteria)
-endospores -anaerobic conditions like canning -virulence: botulinum toxins which blocks synapse and acetylcholine release causing paralysis -cosmetic Botox
Clostridium tetani (gram + bacteria)
-rod -contact with wound -tetanus- involuntary muscle spasms -strict anaerobic environment
Staphylococcus aureus (gram + bacteria)
-coccus -local infection: hair follicles -boils, urinary tract infection, pneumonia in lungs -virulence: stapholysins (breaks down skin)
Streptococcus pyogenes (gram + bacteria)
-coccus -very high fever , joint swelling -strep throat- bright red arch with darker red dots -on skin as rash -Rhythmic fever- inflammation of heart
Aspergillus flavus (nondimorphic fungi)
-endospores -open wound -agriculture or outdoor environment -also from hospitals -antifungal medications such as voriconazole (preferred for invasive aspergillosis), itraconazole, and amphotericin B -contaminant of nuts and stored grains, produces an aflatoxin that is both a toxin and the most potent known natural carcinogen.
Candida albicans (dimorphic fungi)
-coccus -more favorable to yeast -vaginal yeast infections, oral thrust, -itching, burning, discharge -antifungal medication & check with papsmear
Sporothrix schenkii (nondimorphic fungi)
-soil, plants, timber dwelling -ex. rose & thorn -into wound to lymp which causes ulcers -lymp nodes swell -Treatment with itraconazole
Tinea (nondimorphic fungi)
-athletes food/ring worm -direct contact -skin/nails -dark, wet, warm environments -red ring with lesions -itching, burning, dry cracking -can also grow on nails -
Acanthamoeba (protist)
-wet environments -soils & fresh water (swimming/hottubes) -Disseminated infections, lesions, keratitis (corneal inflammation) and blindness -higher risk with contact lenses -skin wounds & respiratory tract -treatments include topical antiseptics, painkillers or corticosteroids -
Babesia (protist)
- tick borne (ixodes ticks) -infects RBC & replicate inside to burst the cell -malaria-like symptoms (recurring fever) -combination of atovaquone and azithromycin or a combination of clindamycin and quinine
Giardia lamblia (protist)
-anaerobic parasite that possesses two nuclei and several flagella -diarrhea -spread through cysts from feces that contaminate water supplies (they live in the guts of animals like termites and cockroaches) -Nitroimidazoles
Trypanosoma brucei (protist)
-African sleeping sickness -via the bite of a tsetse fly -include confusion, difficulty sleeping, and lack of coordination -virulence: abilities to form capsules and undergo antigenic variation
Hepatitis (virus)
-Hep A- Fecal oral -Hep B- STI or Blood -Hep C- blood sex razor -Hep D- Virusoid (doesn't infect on its own needs hep B) -Hep E- undercooked meat/shellfish
Herpes simplex virus I or II (virus)
-sexually transmitted -virulence: dsDNA gets into WBC -blisters/sores
HIV (virus)
-chronic -damage to the immune system -virus targets helper T cells -more sustainable to infections
Mumps (virus)
-respiratory droplets or through contact with contaminated saliva -fever, muscle pain, headache, pain with chewing, loss of appetite, fatigue, and weakness. -swollen salivary glands -virus can enter the bloodstream (viremia), allowing it to spread to the organs and the central nervous system. -The virus can be identified using culture or molecular techniques such as RT-PCR.
Poliovirus (virus)
-fecal oral or by aerosol or droplet transmission. -intestinal disease that, proceeds to the nervous system, causing paralysis and, potentially, death. -at the beginning: present in the throat and in the stool -later: invades local lymphoid tissue, enters the bloodstream, and then may infect cells of the CNS. -spinal cord, brain stem, or motor cortex results in cell destruction and leads to flaccid paralysis
-saliva or respiratory secretions -runny nose, a sore throat, and a cough, along with a high fever -three to five days after the fever subsides, a rash may begin to appear on the chest and abdomen -flat or papules that are firm and slightly raised; some macules or papules may be surrounded by a white ring -serological tests to confirm the diagnosis
Zika virus (virus)
-mosquito & sex borne -cold-like symptoms, headache, rash, -pregnant women: increased chance of miscarriage/brain swelling -attacks nervous system and muscle weakness
Enterobius vermicularis (worm)
-pinworm -fecal oral -sleeplessness and itching around the anus -vision loss and eye inflammation, or fever, fatigue, coughing, and abdominal pain, depending on whether the organism infects the eye or the viscera.
Loa loa (worm)
-African eye worm -West and Central Africa -by deerflies -visible migration of worms across the conjunctiva of the eye -fever and areas of allergic inflammation -temporary eye pain and itching -Worms can be surgically removed from the eye or the skin
Taenia (worm)
-tapeworm -pork -attaches to the intestinal wall -mild gastrointestinal symptoms such as epigastric discomfort, nausea, diarrhea, flatulence, or hunger pains -tapeworm segments passed in the stool -
Trichinella (worm)
-undercooked meat, which releases the larvae and allows them to encyst in muscles -fever, muscle pains, and digestive system problems; severe infections can lead to lack of coordination, breathing and heart problems, and even death -