Semester 1 Final Review

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73 Terms
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What is the definition of anatomy?

The branch of science concerned with the bodily structure of humans, animals, and other living organisms

What is the definition of physiology?

The branch of biology that deals with the normal functions of living organisms and their parts

What happens in transcription and translation?

A segment of DNA gets copied by RNA. During translation a cell makes proteins using the genetic information from an mRNA strand

What is active transport and passive transport?

Active - Cell transportation that requires energy

Passive - Cell transportation that doesn’t require energy

What happens in osmosis?

The movement of water molecules across a gradient and is passive transport

What are the 4 body tissues?

Muscle, Connective, Epithelial, and Nerve

Which body tissue is the most abundant?


What is homeostasis?

The body’s way of maintaining equilibrium (a balanced state)

What is a negative feedback loop?

A decrease in stimulus in order to return to a balanced state (Ex: sweating to cool down)

What is a positive feedback loop?

An increase in stimulus in order to return to a balanced state (Ex: Labor contractions during labor)

What are the layers of skin?

Epidermis, Dermis, and Hypodermis (IN THAT ORDER)

What is the Epidermis?

The first layer of skin; contains hair (dead) and normal skin

What is the Dermis?

The second layer of skin; contains hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and nerves

What is the Hypodermis/Subcutaneous layer?

The third layer of skin ; contains fatty tissue and veins

What are the three types of burns?

1st degree burn, 2nd degree burn, and 3rd degree burn

What is a 1st degree burn?

Burn that only burns the first layer (Epidermis) (Redness)

What is a second-degree burn?

Burn that burns all two layers (Epidermis and Dermis) (Blistering and Red)

What is a third-degree burn?

Burn that burns all three layers (Epidermis, Dermis, and Hypodermis) ( usually white without blood or blackened skin )

What is the function of the skeletal system?

To provide support, protect, body movement, blood cell formation (in the bone marrow), and store inorganic materials (salt, calcium, potassium, etc.)

What are osteoblasts?

They form new bone

What are osteoclasts?

They break down bone

What are osteocytes?

They are mature bone cells

What is the epiphysis?

Located at the ends of long bones ( top and bottom ) and consists of spongy bone with red marrow to fill the spaces in between it.

What is a diaphysis?

Located at the middle section of the bone and includes the medullary cavity, which is filled with yellow marrow, and the walls of the diaphysis are made of compact bone.

What is cartilage?

A firm yet flexible connective tissue that covers part of the bone (usually found at the edge of the bones)

What is spongy bone?

Is lighter and less dense than compact bone; found in the epiphysis

What is compact bone?

The hard external layer of bones and surrounds the medullary cavity

What are the 5 types of bone?

Flat, short, long, irregular, and sesamoid

Example of flat bone


Example of irregular bone


Example of sesamoid bone


Example of short bone

Carpal bones

Example of long bone


What are the four joints?

Hinge, pivot, ball and socket, and plane

Example of pivot joint

Neck, ulna, and radius

Example of hinge joint

Fingers, knees, elbows, and toes

Example of plane joint

Wrist, ankle, and spine

Example of ball and socket joint

Hips and shoulder

What are the characteristics of Skeletal muscle and where is it found?

Skeletal muscles are attached to skeleton and are voluntary

What are the characteristics of Cardiac muscle and where is it found?

Cardiac muscles are found only in the heart and are involuntary

What are the characteristics of Smooth muscle and where is it found?

Smooth muscles cover the walls of internal organs and are involuntary

What neuroglia make myelin sheaths and where?

Oligadendricytes make myelin sheaths in the CNS

What are the four lobes of the brain?

Frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital

What function does the frontal lobe have?

Emotions and thinking

What function does the parietal lobe have?

Sensory feelings

What function does the temporal lobe have?


What function does the occipital lobe have?


What is the sympathetic nervous system for?

Responsible for your “fight or flight” responses

What is the parasympathetic nervous system for?

Calming you down

What is found in the outer ear?

Ear canal and external ear

What is found in the middle ear?

Ossicles and eardrum

What is found in the inner ear?

Semicircular canals, auditory nerve, cochlea, and vestibular nerve.

What do olfactory nerves/cells do?

The olfactory nerves allow you to perceive smell.

What are the hormones of the pituitary gland?


What are the hormones of the pineal gland?


What are the hormones of the adrenal gland?

Cortisol, aldosterone, adrenal androgens, epinephrine, and norepinephrine

What is the function of OT?

Stimulates labor contractions

What is the function of ADH?

Causes the kidney to retain water

What is the function of TSH?

Stimulates the thyroid to release its hormones

What is the function of GH?

Stimulates growth and cell production

What is the function of ACTH?

Stimulates the adrenal cortex to release stress hormone

What is the function of FSH?

Stimulates sperm and egg production

What is the function of LH?

Regulates sex hormones

What is the function of PRL?

Stimulates production of breast milk

What is the function of melatonin?

Regulates the sleep cycle ( puts us to sleep )

What is the function of cortisol?

Increase sugars in the bloodstream

What is the function of aldosterone?

Maintains blood pressure by regulating salt and water in the body

What is the function of adrenal androgens?

Sex hormones for puberty

What is the function of epinephrine?

Stress hormone that maintains blood pressure

What is the function of norepinephrine?

Increases heart rate due to anger or fear

How do smell and taste work together?

When you chew food, odor molecules enter the back of your nose. Your taste buds tell you if a food is sweet, sour, bitter, or salty. Your nose figures out the specifics, like if that sweet taste is a grape or an apple

What do the nervous system and endocrine do to keep balance in the body?

The hypothalamus connects the endocrine and nervous systems. It also produces releasing and inhibiting hormones that either stop or start the production of other hormones in the body.

What happens in diffusion?

The passive transport of molecules