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189 Terms
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Social Sciences
The disciplines under which identity, culture, society, and politics are collectively under.
Social Sciences
Comprised of a wide array of academic disciplines that study the overall functions of society as well as the interactions among its individual members and institutions.
Man Influenced by Culture
We grow up with traditions from our households.
Society Influenced Culture
Culture is affected by society because cultures are mixed in a society, making some cultures irrelevant.
Crime Rate
Number of crimes committed in a period of time.
Crime Rate
Affects the economic development and productivity of the country.
A state or condition in which a person or community lacks the financial resources and essential for a minimum standard of living.
Types of Poverty
* Absolute * Relative * Situational * Generational * Rural * Urban
Absolute Poverty
Condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic human needs.
Cause of Absolute Poverty
* Debt * Population Increase * Natural Disasters * Conflicts * Child Labor
Relative Property
Lack of income needed to maintain the average standard of living in a society.
Cause of Relative Poverty
* Long-term Sickness * Disability * Discouragement from the Labor Market * Single Parent
Situational Poverty
A period where an individual falls below the poverty line because of a sudden event.
Cause of Situational Poverty
* Divorce * Death of the Breadwinner * Illness * Loss of Job
Generational Poverty
Defined as having been in poverty for atleast two generations
Cause of Generational Poverty
* Hopelessness * Scarcity of Mindset * Toxicity * Stress
Rural Poverty
The product of poor infrastructure that hinders development and mobility.
Cause of Rural Poverty
* Lack of Sufficient Food * Lack of Technological Development * Lack of Agricultural Support * Lack of Access to Markets
Urban Poverty
The set of economic and social difficulties that are found in industrialized cities.
Cause of Urban Poverty
* Low Level of Education/Skills * Lack of Employment Opportunities * Low Wages * Large Family Size
A formal and organized choice by vote of a person for a political office or other position.
Second Monday of May every 3rd year Starting 1992
National and local elections.
A form of dishonesty or a criminal offense which is undertaken by a person or an organization which is entrusted with a position of authority in order to acquire illicit benefits or abuse power for one’s personal gain.
Examples of Corruption
* Giving or accepting bribes * Under the table * Manipulating/diverting bribes * Money Laundering * Defrauding investors
Types of Corruption
* Grand * Petty
Grand Corruption
Done by high ranking officials \ * Misappropriation * Theft * Embezzlement/fraud * Breach of trust
Petty Corruption
Lowest form of corruption, typically done by low-level public servants.
Types of Migration
* Push * Pull
Media Controversies
* Civil rights * Censorship and freedom of speech * Climate change * Death penalty * Abortion
The study of what makes us human.
Types of Anthropology
* Cultural * Biological
Cultural Anthropology
Deals with the study of the differences and similarities of various cultures and how they corelate with each other. \ Ex. Ethnology
An academic field that compare and analyzes the characteristics of different people and the relationships between them.
Power Distance
The relationship between high-ranking and lower-ranking individuals depend on how the latter react to the former.
High Power Distance
Respect for authority
Low Power Distance
Respect for individuality
Biological Anthropology
Concerned with the origin, evolution, and diversity of people’s ancestry, development, genetics, and other human characteristics.
Human Lineage
* Australopithecus Afarensis * Homo Habilis * Homo Erectus * Homo Neanderthalensis * Homo Sapiens
The scientific study of humans, their history and culture, through the examinations of the artefacts and remains left behind.
Archeological Records
* Artifacts * Architecture * Biofacts or ecofacts * Sites * Cultural Landscapes
Anthropological Linguistics
Examines human languages
Anthropological Linguistics
Study of the relationship between language and culture. Refers to work on languages that have no written records.
The systematic or scientific study of human society and social behavior; from large scale institutions and mass culture to small groups and individual interactions.
The study of reifications or social constructs.
Structural Functionalism
Views the society as composed of different but interdependent integral parts that keep a society intact and functioning.
Examples of Structural Functionalism
* Government * Church * Hospital * School
Symbolic Interactionalism
Symbolic interactionism is an approach used to analyze human interactions by focusing on the meanings that individuals assign to things in the world around them, including words and objects.
Herbert Blumer
“In order to understand society, it is of paramount concern to know underlying concepts embedded in everyday communication and interaction.”
Examples of Symbolic Interactionalism
* Written * Unwritten * Conversations * Responses * Interpretations
One’s awareness is present, an individual can characterize his own self in accordance to his conception of himself.
Shared Symbols
Negotiated Order
A preconceived reaction or response to every kind of interaction. These preconceptions can be re-negotiated in another way which can also be understood by other people.
Social Stratification
A society’s categorization of its people into groups based on socioeconomic factors.
Socioeconomic Factors
* Wealth/income * Race * Education * Ethnicity * Gender * Occupation * Social Status * Derived Power
Karl Marx
“Accumulation of wealth at one pole is at the same time accumulation of misery, agony of toil, slavery, ignorance, brutality, and mental degradation at the opposite pole.”
Political Science
The art of politics and governance.
Political Science according to Aristotle
“The study of the state including its form of government, political system, political behavior, and political ideology.”
Fields of Political Science
* Political philosophy * Comparative government and politics * Public administration * International Relations
Political Philosophy
The study of concepts such as politics, government, liberty, and justice.
Comparative Government and Politics
Incorporates topics such as the different forms of government found in different countries; evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of it.
Parts of Government
* Executive * Legislative * Judiciary
Public Administration
Administer the needs of the general public.
International Relations
Diplomatic relations and practices among the states.
Social Science
Any discipline or branch of science that deals with the sociocultural aspects of human behavior.
Scientific Method
Started 18th century
Major Fields in Social Science
* Psychology * Sociology * Anthropology * Political Science * Economics

Human Evolution

The evolutionary process leading to the appearance of modern-day humans.

Human Evolution

It is characterized by a number of morphological, development, physiological, and behavioral changes that have taken place since the split between the last common known ancestor of humans and apes.


Is used to determine the species of human beings.


According to Anthropologists, the direct ancestors of the Homo species are _____.


The first definite hominids according to Ember (2011),

  • Gracile australopithecines

  • Robust australopithecines

Groups of australopithecus.

  • Australopithecus Anamensis

  • Australopithecus Afarensis

  • Australopithecus Africanus

Strand of gracile australopithecines

  • Australopithecus Aethiopicus

  • Australopithecus Robustus

  • Australopithecus Boisei

Strand of robust australopithecines

Gracile Australopithecines

A group of early human ancestors that lived between 4 million and 1 million years ago.

Gracile Australopithecines

They are characterized by a relatively small brain size and a more human-like body shape compared to the robust australopithecines.


Specimen of the australopithecus afarensis

Gracile Autralopithecines

They are considered to be the direct ancestor of genus Homo, which includes modern humans.


Used to describe something that is slender, delicate, or lightly built

  • Australis

  • Pithecus

The name Australopithecus is derived from the Latin words ___ and ___, meaning southern and ape respectively.

Australopithecus Anamensis

They are the earliest australopithecine species. It is small in built with teeth.


A. Anamensis were found in ___.

Australopithecus Anamensis

They lived between 4.2 and 3.9 million years ago in Eastern Africa.

Australopithecus Anamensis

They had a cranial capacity (cc) of 450 cc.

Australopithecus Afarensis

It has a small brain, about 400 cubic centimeters. Its arms and legs were about the same length.

Australopithecus Afarensis

They are the most represented australopithecine species.

  • Tanzania

  • Ethiopia

A. Afarensis were found in ___.

Australopithecus Afarensis

It is a small hominid. Its teeth were somewhat large compared to its body size

Australopithecus Afarensis

They lived 3.9 to 2.9 million years ago in Eastern Africa.

Australopithecus Africanus

They were the first gracile australopithecine that was discovered

Raymond Dart

The name Australopithecus africanus was coined by Professor ___.

Southern ape of Africa

Australopithecus africanus means ___.

Three and a half to four and a half feet tall

The adult Australopithecus africanus was ___.

Australopithecus Africanus

They lived in South Africa about 3 to 2 million years ago.

Australopithecus Africanus

Its teeth and jaws were similar to those of chimpanzees. They also had a slightly larger brain size than that of a chimpanzee, but smaller than Homo species

Robust Australopithecines

They are characterized by their heavily built and strong body structure, with larger jaw muscles and heavy brow ridges.

  • Heavily built and strong body structure

  • Larger jaw muscles

  • Heavy brow ridges

Characteristics of Robust Australopithecines

Robust Australopiths

The ___ are a group of fossil hominins that existed in East and southern Africa between approximately 2.5 and 1.4 million years ago

Australopithecus Aethiopicus

They were the earliest and somewhat the least known of the robust australopithecines.

Australopithecus Aethiopicus

Some of its fossils date between 2.3 million and 2.7 million years ago.

  • Kenya

  • Ethiopia

Places where the A. Aethiopicus were found.

  • Larger dentition

  • Huge cheekbones

Characteristics of A. Aethiopicus

  • Black Skull

  • Paranthropus Aethiopicus

Other names of A. Aethiopicus

Australopithecus Aethiopicus

It is an extinct species that lived in Africa around 2.5 million years ago.

Robust Australopithecines

It has a very large, robust jaw and teeth, with a sagittal crest on the skull.

Australopithecus Robustus

It has larger teeth, a massive jaw, and a flatter face than A. africanus. It died out a million years ago. It is not ancestral to human genus, Homo.

Robert Broom

DIscovered A. Robustus

Paranthropus Robustus

Other names of A. Robustus

Australopithecus Robustus

It lived in Africa between 2 and 1 million years ago.

Australopithecus Robustus

It is adapted to a diet of tough, fibrous plants, and may have used its heavy jaws and teeth to crack open tough nuts and seeds.

Australopithecus Boisei

It has enormous molar teeth and expanded premolars, a think and deep jaw, and thick cheek bones

Louis Leakey

Discovered A. Boisei

Western Tanzania

Where the A. Boisei were found.

Australopithecus Boisei

It lived between about 2.3 and 1.3 million years ago. Also it is not ancestral to human genus or Homo.

Paranthropus Boisei

Other names for A. Boisei

Australopithecus Boisei

Similar characteristics with the australopithecus robustus, but its brain size is slightly larger than that of other robust australopithecines.

Australopithecus Boisei

It had a diet of tough, fibroid plants.


Have a brain larger compared to the Australopithecus species


It is classified to our genus, Homo.

  • Homo Habilis

  • Homo Rudolfensis

Two species of Hominids

  • Kenya

  • Tanzania

Where were the hominid species found.

  • Homo Habilis

  • Homo Rudolfensis

Both have lived at the same time as the Australopithecus boisei.

Homo Habilis

Appeared around 2.3 million years ago.

  • Larger Brain

  • Reduced Molar and Premolar Size

  • Long Arms

Characteristics of Homo Habilis

Homo Rudolfensis

The ___ is somehow the same as the features of Homo habilis.

  • Cheek Teeth

  • Face

Difference between Homo Habilis and Homo Rudolfensis

Homo Rudolfensis

~Light Skin Stare~

Old World

The Homo erectus was the first hominid species that was distributed in the ___.

Homo Erectus

First hominid species distributed in the old world.

Homo Erectus

It was seen in parts of Africa and in Asia.

Eugene Dubois

Discovered homo erectus

Pithecanthropus Erectus

First name of the homo erectus

Erect ape man

Meaning of pithecanthropus erectus.

Homo Erectus

Had smaller teeth than the other species in the Homo genus

Homo Erectus

The brain averages 895 to 1040 cc in size.


It is known that the Homo erectus have the capacity to control ___.

Homo Sapiens

May have lived earlier than the neanderthals. They lived 100,000 to 50,000 years ago.

Homo Sapiens

It was characterized as the modern human.

  • Domed Skull and Chin

  • Puny Skeleton

  • Small Eyebrows

Characteristics of homo sapiens

  • Homo Habilis

  • Homo Erectus

  • Homo Sapiens

Strand of our genus

  • Neolithic Revolution

  • Agricultural Revolution

Permanent settlements were built at this time.

  • Longer dry seasons

  • Conclusion of a 100,000-year ice age were both caused by climate change

  • Domestication of dogs

10,000 BCE

  • Asia

  • North America

Where were dogs domesticated.

9,500 BCE

The "founder crops" of agriculture appear

  • Wheat

  • Barley

  • Peas

  • Lentils

  • Bitter Vetch

  • Chickpeas

  • Flax

The founder crops

8,000 to 6,000 BCE

Nomadic hunter-gatherers begin to grow food and domesticate animals.

7,500 BCE

Rice in China

7,000 BCE

Squash in Mexico

8,500 BCE

Wheat in Mesopotamia

7,000 BCE

Cattle in SW Asia and India

  • Sheep

  • Goats

  • Pigs

What were the cattle in 7,000 BCE

8,000 to 6,000 BCE

Irrigation Systems are introduced

  • Rice in China, 7500 BCE

  • Squash in Mexico, 7000 BCE

  • Wheat in Mesopotamia, 8500 BCE

  • Cattle in SW Asia and India, 7000 BCE

  • Irrigation Systems

8,000 to 6,000 BCE

7,000 to 6,000 BCE

This is when domestication of cattle begins in Southwest Asia, Pakistan and India.

6,000 to 3,000 BCE

This is when the wooden plow is used in Mesopotamia and Egypt.

6,000 to 3,000 BCE

Permanent Villages are established in the Fertile Crescent. And farming is established on the banks of the Nile River.


Wooden plow

  • Horses in Ukraine

  • Donkeys in Egypt

  • Water buffalos in China

  • Corn/Maize in Mexico

5,000 to 3,000 BCE

3,000 BCE

This is when Irrigation systems and dams are built on the Nile River. Crop Production increases trade and the spread of agriculture.

  • Irrigation Systems and Dams on the Nile River

  • Potatoes in Peru

3,000 BCE

2,000 BCE

This is when the Iron Plow was developed in China.

  • Manure as Fertilizer

  • Iron plows in China and SW Asia

1,000 BCE

500 BCE

This is when the Mouldboard plow with a V-shaped iron cutting edge was developed in China.

Mouldboard Plow

An implement that cuts soil, lifts it, and turns it at least partly upside down by means of a curved plate.


Inhabitants of a city.


Urban community.


A state of societal development, wherein people in a certain community experience advanced government, technology, agriculture, etc.

  • Mesopotamia

  • Indus Valley

  • Ancient China

  • Ancient Egypt

4 Ancient Civilizations

Indus Valley

Existed from 3300 BCE - 1300 BCE (2600-1900 BCE).

South Asia

Where was the Indus Valley located.

Indus Valley

Largest population and territory of a million square km.

  • Harappa

  • Mohenjo-Daro

The Indus Valley have two twin cities called.

Harappan Civilization

Other name for Indus Valley.

  • There was a single state

  • There was no single ruler but several

  • Harappan society had no rulers

Three major theories about Indus Valley Civilization

There was a single state

Similarity in artifacts, the evidence for planned settlements, the standardized ratio of brick size, and the establishment of settlements near sources of raw materials.

There was no single rule but several

Mohenjo-Daro had a separated ruler, Harappa another, and so forth.

Harappan society had no rulers

Everybody enjoyed equal status.

  • No evidence of Kings, Priests, or emperors

  • No royal tombs or palaces

  • No state religion, temples, pyramids, or ziggurats

Characteristics of Indus Valley

  • Public Baths

  • Sewage Systems

Indus Valley in South Asia focused on building ___ and ___.

  • Water

  • Standardization

  • City Planning

Main Aspects of the Indus Valley

  • Water

  • Drainage

  • Bathing

Held an almost religious significance in Harappan city planning.


Harappan Brick Ratio

  • North-South

  • East-West

The main streets of Harappan cities were usually oriented ___ and ___.


There was usually a separately walled area built on a man mound known as ___.


The reason the Harappan civilization built walls.

  • Harappa

  • Mohenjo-Daro

These cities are well known for their impressive, organized and regular layout.


The transition to a more democratic political regime.


A system of government in which all the people of a state or polity are involved in making decisions about its affairs, typically by voting to elect representatives to a parliament or similar assembly.

  • Wealth/Money

  • Culture

  • Social Equality

  • Foreign Intervention

Reasons for democratization