Ch. 1 : The Study of Body Function

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36 Terms
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Definition of Physiology: (think, "the study of...")
The study of biological function; how the body works
Name the various levels:
- Cells - Tissues - Organs - Organ Systems - Organisms
How is information about the body obtained?
By the scientific method, hypothesis-drive experimentation
the fundamental unit
groups of same cell type
multiple tissues w/ a common function
Organ System
multiple organs
multiple organ systems
Circulatory/Cardiovascular System consists of:
heart and vessels
lungs and air passageways
digestive tract, glands
kidneys, bladder
muscles, tendons, bones
brain, spinal cord, sensory organs
pituitary gland, thyroid, etc.
ovaries, uterus, testes
Definition of homeostasis:
- State of relative constancy of the internal environment - The framework we use for physiology concepts, need to maintain certain range for our health
Give examples of homeostasis mechanisms
- Body temperature - Sodium - Glucose - pH - Oxygen
What two concepts are important for understanding physiological homeostasis?
Exchange and communication
What does ICF stand for and what is it?
Intercellular Fluid and it's fluid within the cell
What does ISF stand for and what is it?
Interstitial Fluid and it's fluid around the cells, within the tissue
Fluid component of blood, within blood vessels
Changes in a physiological variable are detected by a _______
sensor (senses the change)
Where is the information sent?
Integrating center (coordinates output)
Afferent pathway does what?
Carries information TO the integrating center
Efferent pathway does what?
Carries information AWAY FROM the integrating center
The integrating center then sends it to the...
What does the effector do?
Produces change in the opposite direction
Negative feedback
an increase or decrease in a variable which causes the variable to move in the opposite direction
Name two examples of negative feedback
Maintenance of body temperature: - Shivering = response to decreased body temp. - Sweating = response to increased body temp.
Dynamic constancy
Levels change over short periods of time, remains relatively constant over long periods of time
Name the four primary tissues
- Muscle - Nervous - Epithelial - Connective
Muscle Tissue
Used for contraction
Nervous Tissue
Used for generation & conduction of electrical events (carries information to support functions)
Epithelial Tissue
Forms membranes covering and lining body surfaces and glands compromised of these membranes
Connective Tissue
characterized by large amount of extracellular material; blood, bone and cartilage (fills space)