Science - Chapter 2: Grade 7

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What makes a plant green
What happens during fermentation?
Cells release energy from food without using oxygen.
What happens after a plant absorbs energy from the sun?
It makes its own food during photosynthesis
Compare photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
Cellular respiration has the opposite equation of Photosynthesis. Producers carry out photosynthesis, but both consumers and producers carry out cellular respiration.
What does cell division allow?
Organisms to grow, repair damaged structures, and reproduce.
Name all phases of the cell cycle and what they do.
REMEMBER THIS: IMPMATC 1. Interphase, the cell grows and replicates its DNA. 2. Mitosis, the cell’s nucleus is divided into two new ones and one set of DNA goes to the daughter cells.(PHASES WITHIN MITOSIS: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase) 3. Cytokinesis, completes the cell division. The cytoplasm divides, and each daughter cell has an even amount of chromosomes as the parent cell. And then the cycle repeats.
Cell cycle
A cell grows, prepares for division, and divides into two new cells that are called “daughter cells”
A process where the cell makes an exact copy of the DNA in its nucleus.
In the nucleus, DNA and proteins form threadlike structures called chromosomes. At the end of replication, the cell contains two identical sets of chromosomes
An energy releasing process that does not require oxygen
Cellular Respiration
Process by which cells obtain energy from glucose.
What happens during cellular respiration?
Cells break down glucose and other molecules from food in the presence of oxygen, releasing energy.
What happens during photosynthesis?
Organisms absorb energy from the sun and use it to convert it to carbon dioxide and water into sugars and oxygen.
Process by which a cell captures energy in sunlight and uses it to make food
An organism that can make its own food
An organism that can’t make its own food
What are the phases within mitosis? What do they do?
1. Prophase, Chromosomes in the nucleus condense. The spindle fibers form a bridge between the ends of the cell and then the nuclear envelope breaks down. 2. metaphase, Each chromosome attaches to a spindle fiber at its centromere. 3. anaphase, the centromere of each chromosome spilts pulling the chromatids apart. The cell stretches out. and 4. telophase, in which the chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell and two nuclei are formed.