Marine Ecology: Taxonomy

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Classification vs. Taxonomy
Classification: - the grouping of items based on a set of standards - binomial nomenclature - modern systems of classifications use evolutionary relationships Taxonomy: - the study of the relationships between organisms - has categories
Biodiversity vs. Genetic diversity vs. Ecological diversity
Biodiversity - the number of different species in a given area Genetic diversity - Between members of the same species Ecological diversity - Differs depending on climate changes (if abiotic factors don't change much, it will have higher biodiversity)
regional biodiversity effects: Latitude, altitude, nutrient level
- Biodiversity increases as latitude and altitude decrease - Lower levels of nutrients have the most biodiversity (clear water = little nutrients. Coral reefs are the second-most biodiverse ecosystems on earth)
Taxa, from least to most specific
Domain Kings Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Don't Kings Play Chess On Fine Green Sands
Kingdom Animalia
- Under domain eukarya - multicellular - heterotrophs - sexual and asexual reproduction (budding) - Cells are organized into tissues and organs (complex organ systems) - Most animals are motile for at least portion of life cycle
Kingdom Plantae
- under domain eukarya - mostly multicellular - cell wall composed of cellulose - most are autotrophic (few are heterotrophic) - sexual reproduction with flowers and cones - asexual reproduction with budding and fragmentation
Kingdom Fungi
- under domain eukarya - unicellular or multicellular - heterotrophic - reproduces sexually and asexually (spores, budding/fragmentation, or hyphae) - No motility - Cell walls contain chitin (carbohydrate) - Threadlike structures called hyphae used for feeding, growth, and reproduction
Kingdom Protista
- under domain eukarya - Most are unicellular, but can be colonial, or multicellular - heterotrophic + autotrophic - Motility = species-specific: flagella, cilia, pseudopods - Can reproduce asexually (binary fission/budding) or sexually - 3 categories - Plant-like - Animal-like - Fungus-like - Primarily live in aquatic/marine environments, and are even found living in humans
Phylum Annelida
segmented worms
Phylum Arthropoda
jointed legs + exoskeleton
Phylum Bryozoa
only colonial + all filter feeders
Phylum Chordata
Dorsal spinal cord + vertebrates
Phylum Chaetognatha
Worm-like - slim with fins
Phylum Cnidaria
Radial symmetry + No brain + Eye spots+ Singular hole for feeding and excretion
Phylum Ctenophora
Bilaterally symmetrical + Bioluminescence + Clear + Comb rows of fused cilia for movement
Phylum Echinodermata
Inner shell + Tubed feet + Radial symmetry
Phylum Mollusca
Mantle, secretes shell of mollusk + Muscular foot
Phylum Porifera
All sessile + Strictly filter feeders + pore bearing