AP Psych - TEST #2

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41 Terms
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Social Psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
Attribution Theory
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
Fundamental Attribution Error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
Peripheral Route Persuasion
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness
Central Route Persuasion
occurs when influenced people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when we become aware that our attitudes and actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
Normative Social Influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
Informational Social Influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
Social Facilitation
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
Social Loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their effort toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
Group Polarization
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the groups
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior
an unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members
Just-World Phenomenon
the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
"Us"- people with whom we share a common identity
"Them"- those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup
Ingroup Bias
the tendency to favor our own group
Scapegoat Theory
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
Other-Race Effect
the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
Frustration-Aggression Principle
the principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger, which can generate aggression.
Automatic Mimicry
Chameleon effect (appearance). Hanging out with people you starting looking, feeling, acting like them. Subconsious, MOOD LINKAGE
follows orders, Milgram's study of obedience, teaches us why ordinary people may do bad things. harder to challenge authority.
Unselfish regard for the welfare of others
Bystander Effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present. group size also matters
Social exchange theory
The theory that our social behavior is an echange process, the aim of which is to max. benefits & min. costs
Reciprocity Norm
an expectation that people will help, not hurt those who have helped them
Social-responsibility Norm
an expectation that people will help those needing their help
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
Social Trap
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self interest rather than the good of the group, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
Mirror-Image perceptions
mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each sides sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive
Self-fulfilling prophecy
a belief that leads to its own fulfillment