AP Psychology Chapter 15 Vocabulary

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42 Terms
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patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving that are maladaptive, disruptive, or uncomfortable for those who are affected or for those with whom they come in contact
Biopsychosocial Approach
A view of mental disorders as caused by a combination of interacting biological, psychological, and sociocultural factor
Medical Model
A view in which psychological disorders are seen as reflecting disturbances in the anatomy and chemistry of the brain and in other biological processes
Psychological Model
A view in which mental disorder is seen as arising from psychological processes
Sociocultural Perspective
A way of looking at mental disorders in relation to gender, age, ethnicity, and other social and cultural factors
Sociocultural Factors
Characteristics or conditions that can influence the appearance and form of maladaptive behavior
Diathesis-Stress Model
The notion that psychological disorders arise when a predisposition for a disorder combines with sufficient amounts of stress to trigger symptoms
Anxiety Disorder
A condition in which intense feelings of apprehension are long-standing and disruptive
An anxiety disorder involving strong, irrational fear of an object or situation that does not objectively justify such a reaction
Specific Phobia
An anxiety disorder involving fear and avoidance of heights, animals, or other specific stimuli and situations
Social Phobia
An anxiety disorder involving strong, irrational fears relating to social situations
An anxiety disorder involving strong fear of being alone or away from security of home
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
A condition that involves relatively mild but long-lasting anxiety that is not focused on any particular object or situation
Panic Disorder
An anxiety disorder involving sudden panic attacks
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
An anxiety disorder involving repetitive thoughts and urges to perform certain rituals
Obsessions are repetitive thoughts that cause anxiety and disruptions in day to day life.
Repetitive behaviors that interfere with daily functioning but are performed in an effort to prevent dangers or events associated with obsessions
Somatoform Disorder
Psychological problems in which symptoms of a physical disorder are present without a physical cause
Conversion Disorder
A somatoform disorder in which a person displays blindness, deafness, or other symptoms of sensory or motor failure without a physical cause
A somatoform disorder involving strong, unjustified fear of having physical illness
Somatization Disorder
A somatoform disorder in which there are numerous physical complaints without verifiable physical illness
Somatoform Pain Disorder
A somatoform disorder marked by complaints of severe pain with no physical cause
Body Dysmorphic Disorder
A somatoform disorder characterized by intense distress over imagined abnormalities of the skin, hair, face, or other areas of the body
Dissociative Disorder
Rare conditions that involve sudden and usually temporary disruptions in a person's memory, consciousness, or identity
Fugue Reaction
A dissociative disorder involving sudden loss of memory and possible assumption of a new identity in a new location
Dissociative Amnesia
A dissociative disorder marked by a sudden loss of memory
Dissociative Identity Disorder (D.I.D.)
A dissociative disorder in which a person reports having more than one identity
Affective Disorder (Mood Disorder)
A condition in which a person experiences extreme moods, such as depression or mania.
Major Depression
An affective disorder in which a person feels sad and hopeless for weeks or months
False beliefs, such as those experienced by people suffering from schizophrenia or extreme depression
Dysthymic Disorder
An affective disorder involving a pattern of comparatively mild depression that lasts for at least two years
Bipolar Disorder
Affective disorders in which a person alternates between the emotional extremes of depression and mania
An elated, very active emotional state.
Cyclothymic Personality
An affective disorder characterized by an alternating pattern of mood swings that is less extreme than that of bipolar disorders.
A severe and disabling pattern of disturbed thinking, emotion, perception, and behavior.
A symptom of disorder in which people perceive voices or other stimuli when there are no stimuli present
Positive Symptoms
Schizophrenic symptoms such as disorganized thoughts, hallucinations, and delusions
Negative Symptoms
Schizophrenic symptoms such as the absence of pleasure, lack of speech, and flat affect
Personality Disorders
Long-standing, inflexible ways of behaving that create a variety of problems
Antisocial Personality Disorder (A.P.D.)
A personality disorder involving impulsive, selfish, unscrupulous, and even criminal behavior.
Development of a physical need for a psychoactive drug.
Substance-Related Disorders
Problems involving the use of psychoactive drugs for months or years in ways that harm the user or others