Biology chapter 1 and 2

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A logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experience/what scientist already know.
A testable prediction; suggested explanation
Steps of an experiment
Scientific Question, Hypothesis, Design Experiment, Results, Conclusion
Independent Variable (Manipulated Variable)
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable that you change. (x - axis)
Dependent Variable (Responding Variable)
the variable that is observed and that changes in response to the independent variable. What you measure. (y-axis)
controlled variable (constant)
A variable that is not changed
qualitative data
descriptive data, described with words
quanatative data
uses numbers to describe something
Casual Theory
hunch or prediction based on intuition, not facts
scientific theory
a well-tested concept that is supported by repeated testing and facts
scientific law
a rule that describes a pattern in nature/a natural phenomenon. Often mathematical.
The smallest unit of an organism that can be considered alive - smallest unit of life.
sexual reproduction
type of reproduction in which cells from two parents unite to form the first cell of a new organism
asexual reproduction
process of reproduction involving a single parent that results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
A molecule/universal genetic code that determines the inherited traits of every organism on earth.
the combination of chemical reactions as it carries out its life processes. (Need to eat, excrete waste, exchange gases - humans)
a signal to which an organism responds
external stimuli
environment outside
internal stimuli
within an organism
the relatively constant internal physical and chemical conditions that organisms maintain
Response to stimuli
Living things adjust and respond to changes in their internal and external environments.
Characteristics of life
1. Made of cells 2. Ability to reproduce 3. DNA, 4. Growth & development 5. Responds to stimuli 6. Homeostasis 7. Metabolize 8. Evolve
To change over time; change based on environmental pressure
Grow and develop
To grow and mature, to be able to reproduce
The basic unit of matter
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
Positively charged subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom
Neutral subatomic particles that don't have a charge and located in an atoms nucleus
negatively charged subatomic particles that orbit the nucleus - in the (shell/orbit/level)
One or more atoms but are the same type of atoms ; cannot be broken into simpler units by chemical reactions. ( example H2)
2 or more different types of atoms chemically combined / bound together (example H2O)
two or more atoms bound together, can be the same or different atom (example H2O & H2)
positively and negatively charged atoms
negatively charged ions
positively charged ions
valence shell
outermost shell of an atom
valence electrons
electrons in the outermost shell
Neutral atoms have
same number of protons and electrons
covelant bond
bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms
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Hydrogen bonds
Weaker than Ionic and covalent bonds; Caused by the bonding of a partial positive charged hydrogen atom to a partial negative charged atom. Hydrogen bonds have the ability to attach and detach.
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hydrogen bonds affect on water?
Since water is polar it can form many hydrogen bonds. hydrogen bonds are also responsible for water's cohesion and ability to dissolve many other substances. Since water expands upon freezing, it makes ice more dense than liquid water.
ionic bond
A chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions.
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ionic compound
A compound that consists of positive and negative ions
Water is -----
A molecule that has negative and positive sides
Attraction between molecules of the same substance
An attraction between molecules of different substances
water is a _____ bond
water has the highest _____
heat capacity
heat capacity
amount of energy needed to raise a substances temperature by making it's molecules move faster.
universal solvent
Water- due to its polarity and ability to dissolve many different solutes
Most buffers consist of a weak acid and a weak base. They help maintain a given pH even after the addition of an acid or a base; help maintain homeostasis in organism
large organic molecules found in living things
small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers
chains of monomers
monomers hook together using
dehydration synthesis (releasing water)
monomers unhook using
hydrolysis (taking in water)
Name the 4 macromolecules
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
the starches and sugars found in foods
fats and oils; large, varied group of macromolecules that aren't generally soluble in water.
nucleic acids
DNA and RNA genetic codes
a class of nutrients that builds body tissues and supplies energy.
monomer of carbohydrates
monosaccharides (ex: glucose and fructose)
monomer of lipids
glycerol and fatty acids
monomer of nucleic acids
nucleotides made of 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
monomer of proteins
amino acids
polymer of carbohydrates
polysaccharide (ex: starch, cellulose, glycogen)
polymer of lipids
triglyceride and diglyceride
polymer of nucleic acids
polynucleotide (nucleic acid)
polymer of protein
function of carbohydrates
provide energy for all living things and for structural purposes.
function of lipids
long term energy storage; Important for the biological membrane and water proof coverings.
function of nucleic acids
store and transmit genetic or hereditary information
function of proteins
To control the rate of chemical reactions and regulates cell procedures. Important for structure and transporting cells to help fight diseases.
A protein is one or more ____________
folded polypeptide
Carbohydrates are made of
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Lipids are made of
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
nucleic acids are made of
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus
Proteins are made of
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
polyunsaturated fats
fat molecules that have more than one unsaturated carbon-carbon double bond in the molecule.
chemical reaction
a process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals.
a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction.
element/compound produced as a result of a chemical reaction
a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction; works by lowering reactions activation energy.
A protein that acts as a biological catalyst - speeds up chemical reactions, lowers activation energy.
What property of the enzyme makes it specific to the substrate?
Enzymes are specific to substrates as they have an active site which only allow certain substrates to bind to the active site. This is due to the shape of the active site and any other substrates cannot bind to the active site.
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How are saturated fats different from unsaturated fats?
Saturated fatty acids lack double bonds between the individual carbon atoms, while in unsaturated fatty acids there is at least one double bond in the fatty acid chain.
radioactive isotopes
isotopes with unstable nuclei and break down at a constant rate over time; Dangerous; can be used to detect cancer, kill bad bacteria in food, and can also be used as labels/tracers to follow the movements of substances within organisms.