Mathis Latin America Test

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4.3, 10.4, 12.1 (might update with RNs later)

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Highest social class, which dominated the government and the Church

  • Spanish-born


Latin Americans of European descent who owned the haciendas, ranches, and mines

  • resented their 2nd class status


People of Native American and European descent


People of African and European descent, were angry at being denied the status, wealth and power that other groups enjoyed

Simon Bolivar

(1783-1830) Leader for independence who defeated Spanish forces in South America, liberating: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia

  • Young creole, forced into exile in Haiti

Toussant L'ouverture

Leader of the Haitian Revolution

  • Freed the slaves and gained effective independence for Haiti despite military interventions by the British and French

Miguel Hidalgo

Creole priest who called Mexicans to fight for independence (unsuccessfully, captured and executed)

Jose Morales

Priest who tried to carry the Mexican revolution forward after Father Hidalgo.

Agustin de Iturbide

Mexican (creole) army officer who joined forces w/ the Indians and Mestizos won mexican's independence then claimed himself emperor

  • First ruler of Mexico, "Emperor Aguistin I"

Jose de San Martin

Helped Argentina and Chile win freedom from Spain

Dom Pedro

Son of the Portuguese king, who became emperor and proclaimed independence in Brazil in 1822 w/o fighting

Where did Creoles get many of their revolutionary ideas?

They got revolutionary ideas from Enlightenment ideas. They also got them from the Declaration of Independence and The US Constitution.

How were slaves instrumental in achieving Haiti's independence?

The slaves fought and defeated:

  • Local white planters

  • Troops of the French monarchy

  • A Spanish invasion

  • A British expeditionary force

  • (In the end,) the supposedly invincible army of Napoleon Bonaparte

How did events in Spain affect the fight for Mexican independence?

The French revolution and Napoleonic wars diverted attention of Spain from its colonies leaving a vacuum and increasing dissatisfaction and desire for local government.

Why did Simon Bolivar admire the American and French Revolutions?

He was an admirer of both the American Revolution and the French Revolution because he had the same objective: independence for their people and the establishment of democratic states

How were the goals of the South American revolutions different from their results?

There were negative results for some of the revolutions, which were different than goals

  • As Bolivar stated, the countries just changed one set of masters for another, which goes against the concept of independence in the first place

  • Haitian Revolution terrified landowners in the Caribbean and northern South America

  • As the situation worsened in Spain, many feared that Spain could not protect them from a similar uprising



La Reforma

Liberal reform movement in 19th-century Mexico

  • led by Benito Juarez


System by which workers owe labor to pay their debts

Monroe Doctrine

American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers

Panama Canal

Ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914)


Weakened new nations of Latin America because there was no traditional unity

  • Loyalty to the interests of a particular region


Local strong men

Benito Juarez

Liberal who when he gained power began an era of reform known as La Reforma

  • Offered hope to the oppressed people of Mexico

What factors undermined democracy in post-independence Latin America?

Many factors undermined democracy in Latin America.

  • Inequalitities remained and regionalism weakened the new nations

    • Power remained in the hands of the privileged few

What struggles did Mexico go through as it tried to find stability in the 1800s?

Mexico was dominated by large landowners, army leaders, and the Catholic Church

  • Was a divide in the ruling elite between conservative and liberals

    • Bitter battles between the two groups led to revolts and the rise of dictators

How did foreign influence and investment affect Latin America?

As the U.S. continued to invest in Latin America, it had a negative affect and the was only increasing resentment and rebellion against the U.S. by Latin America

How did the U.S. act as an imperialist power in Latin America?

When the U.S. built the Panama Canal across Central America, it was an engineering marvel that boosted trade and shipping worldwide

  • people of Latin America, however, thought the canal was another example of "Yankee imperialism"



Porfirio Diaz

Dictator who dominated Mexico for 35 years

  • Permitted foriegn companies to develop natural resources

  • Allowed landowners to buy much of the countries land from poor peasants


Large plantations, controlled by landowning elite

Francisco Madero

A liberal reformer who demanded free elections was elected president after Diaz resigned but was assassinated 2 years after being elected by a general Victoriano Huerta

Victoriano Huerta

Mexican Revolutionary during the Mexican Revolution

  • Killed a dozen Americans in New Mexico caused an invasion of Mexico by America which started anti American feelings

Emiliano Zapata

Mexican land reformer

  • Revolutionary and leader of peasants in the Mexican Revolution

  • Was the Mexican Robinhood

  • Was assasinated


Government takeover of natural resources

Venustiano Carraza

President of Mexico 1917

  • wealthy landowner

  • Approved Mexico Consitution of 1917 but didnt implement it

  • fought alongside Villa and Zapata, but turned on them

Mexican Constitution of 1917

Approved during Carraza's Presidency and it strengthened governments control over the economy

  • Addressed three issues:

    • land, labor and religion

  • Implemented during Cadenas

PRI - Institutional Revolutionary Party

(PRI) the political party introduced in 1929 in Mexico that helped to maintain political stability for much of the 20th century. They held control until free election of 2000.

Lazaro Cardenas

President of Mexico (1934-1940). He brought major changes to Mexican life by:

  • Distributing millions of acres of land to the peasants

  • Bringing representatives of workers and farmers into the inner circles of politics

  • Nationalizing the oil industry

Economic Nationalism

Emphasis on home control of the economy

  • Attempting to have little or no reliance on foreign goods by developing their own industries

Cultural Nationalism

Renewed pride in one's own culture with renewed Latin American traditional art forms taking over

Good Neighbor Policy

Franklin D. Roosevelt policy in which the U.S. pledged that the U.S. would no longer intervene in the internal affairs of Latin American countries.

  • Roosevelt supported Mexico's nationalization of its oil companies

  • U.S. withdrew troops from Haiti and Nicaragua

  • Platt Amendment lifted

  • Limited Cuban Independence

Diego Rivera

Mexican Muralist who created murals/artworks in Mexico depicting struggles of mexican people


Large painting on walls

  • type of art is common in mexico used to promote cultural nationalism

Franklin D. Roosevelt

32nd president of US

  • Set the Good Neighbor Policy in Latin American countries