WHAP: Foundations Classical Vocabulary

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59 Terms
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monotheistic religion; emerged during the Persian Empire
Persian Empire
empire; emerged in Southwest Asia (Middle East) during the Classical era; established by Cyrus the Great; covered most of the ancient world (Asia, Europe, and Africa); made up of the Achaemenids, Parthians, and Sassanids
Royal Road
highway reorganized and rebuilt by the Persian king Darius the Great; road built to facilitate rapid communication throughout large empire
Alexander the Great
conquered the Persian empire; advanced borders to India; combined Greek and Persian culture and influence
governor of a province in the Persian Empire; often a relative of the king; responsible for protection of the province and for forwarding tribute (taxes) to central government
culture derived from Greek civilization and the spreading of that culture throughout Mediterranean; blend of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian ideas; result of Alexander the Great’s empire
Greek philosopher; taught that knowledge was based upon observation of phenomena in the material world; mentor of Alexander the Great
Greek city-state; leader in the arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy, and architecture
Greek city-state; ruled by an oligarchy; military focused; slaves for agriculture; discouraged art
Athenian philosopher; shifted the emphasis of philosophical discussion to ethics and human behavior; influenced Plato; developed the Socratic method
theory that all knowledge originates in experience; practice of relying on direct observation of events and experience to determine reality
Cultural Syncretism
blending of foreign beliefs with indigenous beliefs to create a newly formed culture or religion of its own
civilization of independent city-states along the Mediterranean Sea; known for maritime trade and commerce due to their efforts in shipbuilding; inventors of the 1st alphabet
roadside Inn along frequently traveled trade routes (Silk Road, Royal Road); had large courtyard that provided accommodations for trade caravans; allowed travelers to rest and recover; allowed commerce and information to flow amongst merchants from Europe, Africa, and Asia
Roman Republic
507 to 31 BCE; largely governed by the aristocratic ---- Senate; citizens voted representatives into power
Punic Wars
series of three wars between Rome and Carthage over dominance of Mediterranean; Carthage’s General (Hannibal) unable to stop the Romans; Romans then conquered Greece, and North Africa, including Egypt.
ordinary roman citizens
wealthy class in Roman society; landowners
Julius Caesar
Roman General responsible for the conquest of Gaul (modern day France); returned to Rome with army and overthrew the Republic; assassinated in 44 BCE by conservative Senators
Roman Empire
Empire; established by Augustus Caesar (Octavian) in 27 BCE; land in Europe, Africa, and Asia at peak
Pax Romana
“Roman Peace”; stability and prosperity that Roman rule brought to the lands of the Roman empire in the 1-2 centuries; allowed people and traded goods to safely move along Roman roads and seas; facilitated spread of culture and ideas
religion emerging from Southwest Asia (Middle East) in the 1st century CE; Jesus is son of God who sacrificed himself on behalf of mankind; monotheistic extension of Judaism
Maurya Empire
classical civilization in India; unified South Asia under one government; expanded territory under the rule of Chandragupta Maurya
Gupta Empire
Indian Empire; ruled through a central government; “Golden Age of India” due to advancements in education, healthcare, trade, and numbers
religion and philosophy; developed in ancient India; reincarnation; supreme being who takes many forms; world’s oldest religion
highest of the varnas or caste groups; priests
Rig Veda
first Vedas scripture; lays out the principles for thought and development in India
major book in Hinduism; explains Hindu idea of divine force informing whole universe
Hindu god; considered the creator of the world
Caste System
rigid social class hierarchy system in India; four distinct groups/varnas; enforced by the government and Hindu religion
Hinduism and Buddhism; the endless cycle of birth and suffering and death and rebirth
person’s deed and actions; moral law of cause and effect of actions; determines the nature of one’s rebirth
Hinduism; duties and obligations of each caste
Hindu caste; distinctive social group; sub caste
Indian ritual; widow threw herself on the funeral pyre of deceased husband to join him in death; show of devotion
Laws of Manu
set of laws; relates to the caste system and Hinduism; formalized long-held Hindu traditions
ruled the Maurya Empire; supported Buddhism; ruled empire at peak; built roads and irrigation systems to increase trade; death sent empire into decline
belief that individual soul is reborn in a different form after death
religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama in India; philosophy is based on the teaching of the Buddha and that holding a state of enlightenment can be attained by suppressing worldly desires
Four Nobel Truths
taught by the Buddha; form the foundation of Buddhism; all life is suffering, desire is the cause of suffering, removing desire removes suffering; can be done through Eightfold Path
Eightfold Path
Buddhism; basic rules of behavior and belief leading to an end of suffering; right views, intentions, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration
Siddhartha Gautama
The Buddha; Indian prince who renounced his wealth and social position after becoming enlightened he stated the principles of Buddhism
Buddhism; the release from pain and suffering achieved after enlightenment
Founded by Laozi; originating in China; emphasizes living in harmony with the Dao (a.k.a. “the way” or natural order of the universe)
Qin Dynasty
Chinese dynasty; ended Warring States Period; reunified China under one rule; lasted only 14 years; laid the foundation of centralized rule in China; used Legalist policies to gain control.
system of ethics, education, and statesmanship; taught by Confucius and his disciples; stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct
Confucius’s teachings written by his disciples
Filial Piety
China; having the upmost respect for your parents as well as other superiors and political authorities
Shi Huangdi
1st Emperor of China; united China under the Qin dynasty; built roads; began Great Wall of China; believed in Legalism (strict laws); anti-Confucius.
Han Dynasty
imperial dynasty; overthrew the Qin dynasty; ruled China 206 BCE to 221 CE; expanded its boundaries; established a central government; created the civil service exam; increased the popularity of Silk Road
Civil Service Exam
exams that Chinese bureaucrats (government officials) needed to pass to serve government; based on Confucian teachings; established during Han dynasty
Indian Ocean Trade Network
largest sea trading area in the world until the 1400s; connected Southeast Asia and China to Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia; to trade common goods, such as spices; helped spread major world religions (like Islam)
Silk Road
interconnected series of trade routes through various regions of the Asian continent (mainly connecting China to Mediterranean); connecting civilizations such as China, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, India, as well as Rome; to exchange luxury goods.
prominent civilization in modern-day Peru; around 600 CE; before the rise of the Incan empire; depended on trade and agriculture
major civilization in Southern Mexico and Yucatan Peninsula; influenced by the Olmec; established independent city-states; believed in multiple gods; invented a calendar
form of government; small number of upper-class citizens make the decisions for everyone
government; guided by divine power and controlled by religious leaders.
political system; supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
form of government; power is held by the nobility; referred to as traditional elite or “the best” people; usually hereditary