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- the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way to generate new concepts, methodologies and understanding. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes
- the scientific investigation of phenomena which includes collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of facts that link an individual’s speculation with reality - the systematic study of a trend which involves the careful collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of quantitative data or facts that relate man’s thinking with reality
Basic Research
- also called “fundamental research” or “pure research” - seeks to discover basic truths or principles - intended to add to the body of scientific knowledge by exploring the unknown to extend the boundaries of knowledge as wells as to discover new facts and learn more accurately the characteristics of the known without any thought as to immediate practical utility
Applied Research
- this type of research involves seeking new applications of scientific knowledge to the solution of a problem, such as the development of a new system or procedure, new device or new method to solve the problem
Developmental Research
- this is decision-oriented research involving the application of the steps of the scientific method in response to an immediate need to improve existing practices
• Research allows you to pursue your interests, learn something new, hone your problem-solving skills, and to challenge yourself in new ways. • It is valuable life skills for life and class such as professionalism, time management, and learning how to use online research tools. • It communicates your ideas and how to analyze and critique the work of others. • It's a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning. • It's a means to understand issues and increase public awareness. • It helps us succeed in business. • It allows us to disprove lies and support truths. • It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities. • It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information. • It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.
• Why do we do Research?
Research Ethics
- set of ethical guidelines that guide us on. how scientific research should be conducted and disseminated
- principle of research ethics - researchers must ensure this in all forms of scientific communication with colleagues, sponsors, or the general public
- principle of research ethics - avoid bias in all aspects of research
- principle of research ethics - maintain consistency of thought and action
- principle of research ethics - always avoid errors or negligence
- principle of research ethics - share information about your research and be open to criticism and new ideas
- principle of research ethics - disclose all the necessary information needed to evaluate your research
- principle of research ethics - be responsible for all concerns related to your research
Intellectual Property
- principle of research ethics - avoid plagiarism, give proper credit to all contribution in your research and honor all forms of intellectual property
- principle of research ethics - protect and safeguard all confidential information recorded in your research
Responsible Publication
- principle of research ethics - publish for the sole reason to advance the knowledge in your field
Responsible Mentoring
- principle of research ethics - help and mentor other researchers and promote their welfare
Respect for Colleagues
- principle of research ethics - respect and treat all your colleagues fairly
Social Responsibility
- principle of research ethics - aim to promote social good through your research
- principle of research ethics - avoid discrimination in all forms against colleagues
- principle of research ethics - improve your own personal competence and also promote the competence of science as a whole
- principle of research ethics - obey all relevant laws and policies
Animal Care
- principle of research ethics - respect and care for animal species
Human Subject Protection
- principle of research ethics - respect human dignity and take special precautions wherever needed
Research Problem
- a statement about an area of concern, a condition to be improved, a difficulty to be eliminated, or a troubling question that exists in scholarly literature - typically posed in the form of a question - does not state how to do something, offer a vague or broad proposition, or present a value question
1. Introduce the reader to the importance of the topic being studied 2. Places the problem into a particular context 3. Provides the framework for reporting the results
• Purpose of a problem statement
Research Approaches
- a procedure selected by the researcher to collect, analyze and interpret data
Quantitative data
- kind of research approach - a numerical, which requires statistical analysis methods to interpret the data. - statistical analysis methods include finding the mean, median, standard deviation, variance, etc.
Qualitative data
- kind of research approach - narrative or visual, which requires thematic analysis to interpret the data. - the thematic analysis uses words and sentences to code and gathers intro categories
Research Objectives
- describe what we expect to achieve by a project - usually expressed in lay terms and are directed as much to the client as to the researcher - may be linked with a hypothesis or used as a statement of purpose in a study that does not have hypothesis - must be achievable; it must be framed keeping in mind the available time, infrastructure required for research and other resources
SMART Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic Time-bound
• Characteristics of a Research Problem (1) The problem should be specifically stated (2) It is easy to measure by using research instruments, apparatus, or equipment (3) The data are achievable using correct statistical tools to arrive at precise results (4) Real results are attained because they are gathered scientifically and not manipulated or maneuvered (5) Time frame is required in every activity because the shorter completion of the activity, the better
Specialization of the researcher
• Sources of Research Problem - The specialization of the researcher is an impetus toward research
Current and Past Research
• Sources of Research Problem - This is a rich source of research problems even for research replication by using the same instrument, apparatus or equipment
Recommendation from theses, dissertations and research journals
• Sources of Research Problem - It recommends for future research be conducted as sources also of research problems
Original and creative ideas of the researcher based on the problems met in the locality and country
• Sources of Research Problem - Through the original and creative ideas of the researchers of the problems which conducted a study on the utilization and commercialization
• Criteria of a Good Research Problem - a research problem must attract the attention of the researcher and the other people to conduct the research project even without an incentive or research grant at all
• Criteria of a Good Research Problem - through replicability in conducting research is allowed, it is advisable that a research problem is something novel, original and uniques to attract the attention of the people and contribute to the economic development of the country
• Criteria of a Good Research Problem - a good research problem should be economical and effective in solving the needs and problems of society; it should also augment the socioeconomic and health conditions of the people and many others
Relevant to the needs and problems of the people
• Criteria of a Good Research Problem - researchers must keep in mind that they conduct research, not for their personal aggrandizement but also to solve the need and problems of the people
Relevant to the government’s trust
• Criteria of a Good Research Problem - a research problem must respond to the government’s trust
Measurable and Time-bound
• Criteria of a Good Research Problem - a good research problem is measurable by using research instruments, apparatus or equipment as well as statistical tools to arrive at scientific and meaningful results
Historical Method
• type of research methods - also know as the documentary method - in looking into the truth of the past event, the researchers should avail themselves of the use of documents on recorded infromation and facts
Descriptive Method
• type of research methods - otherwise known as normative survey - concerned with the prevailing or existing status of an even or a problem under this method - employs data gathering procedures like: questionaire, interview and observation
Experimental Method
• type of research methods - the researcher focuses on what will be the outcome of the study from the point of view of the future with the manipulation of one independent variable under control and observes the effect on one or more dependent variables
Causal-Comparative Method
• type of research methods - may also be called Ex Post Facto Research - draws conclusions from an observation dervied from what had already taken place
Participatory Method
• type of research methods - requires the researcher’s participation in undergoing the activities within the bounds of the problem sought for investigation - the researcher interacts with the samples to personally observe, evaluate, criticize and interpret the findings as assessed
Case Method
• type of research methods - also called the historic genetic method - delves to the study of the past, the present and the future of the subject case
Statistical Method
• type of research methods - a method where researchers make use of quantitative measurements - the data are communicated in form of mathematical figures and quantities - the researchers uses laws of statistics in the presentation of data
Correlation Method
• type of research methods - utilized by researchers who intend to describe certain phenomena and ascertain the degree to which two or more variable are significantly related or correlated
Qualitative Research
- type of research who’s objective is to gain an understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations; provide insights into the setting of a problem; to uncover prevalent trends in thought and opinion - Data Collection: unstructured or semi-structured techniques (interviews & group discussions) - uses Non-statistical data analysis - its outcomes are not conclusive; They are exploratory/investigative
- type of researcher who’s purpose is to quantify data and generalize results from a sample to the population of interest; measure the incidence of various views and opinion in a chosen sample - Data Collection: Structures techniques like online questionnaires - uses statistical data analysis in the form of tabulations with conclusive findings that are descriptive in nature - it’s outcomes are used to recommend a final course of action
1. Study design and ethics approval 2. Data analysis 3. Authorship 4. Conflicts of interest 5. Redundant publication and plagiarism
• Issues of the Proposed Research
- summarizes the main idea or ideas of your study - a good ____ contains the fewest possible words that adequately describe the contents and/or purpose of your research paper
1. Image result for research approach or key questions 2. Focused on a single problem or issue. 3. Researchable using primary and/or secondary sources. 4. Feasible to answer within the timeframe and practical constraints. 5. Specific enough to answer thoroughly. 6. Complex enough to develop the answer over the space of a paper or thesis.
• What are key research questions?
1. Clearly defined, free of jargon 2. Sufficiently focused 3. Addressed within your limited time frame
• How to identify a meaningful research question
- first part of Chapter ! - consists of background of the study, statement of the problem, significance of the study and scope & delimination fo the study
Background of the Study
- a brief statement of the origin of the problem - an account describing the circumstances which suggest the research
Statement of the Problem
- the definition of the problem is the first main step in writing the research paper - can be expressed in question or declarative form
Significance of the Study
- states the significance of the study and its result - covers an expression of the study’s relevance to fill certain needs
Scope and Delimination of the Study
- identifies a reasonable area covered by the study - a specific statement of the study must indicate the subjects, the number, and the treatment involved in the study
Conceptual Framework
- framework based on generally accepted methods, practices etc.
Theoretical Framework
- framework that deals with interrelated theories which must be presented in more detail as they are not totally tangible
- tentative statements about the given research topic
Definition of Terms
- this pare includes the operational and conceptual definition fo significant terms used in the research paper