Companion Animal Management Exam 1

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3 Key Features of Companion Animals
1.) Partially or totally dependent on humans 2.) Live in close proximity to us 3.) Have a special association with people (bond) - reciprocal dynamic interaction between animals and owner result in true relationship
Com - with Pan - panis - bread Companion = break bread with - we share our food with these animals and receive companionship in return
Companion Animal meaning
more recent term, signals changed role of animals in society
What are some benefits and obligations of ownership?
Benefits: we create a bond with the animal, which can help to ease anxiety, etc. Obligations: Taking care of your pet/animals, meaning you have to keep an eye on how they're doing, feed them, etc.
___% of U.S households own at least one pet = ____ million homes
68%, 84.6
___% of current pet-owning households have multiple types of pets
How many U.S. households? How many pets?
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The companion animal industry in the U.S. is worth __________ dollars?
About $70 billion
In 2017, we spent $____ on pets in the U.S.
69.36 billion
Companion Animal Industry money breakdown
In 2017, we spent $69.36 billion on pets in the U.S. • Food $29.69 billion • Supplies/OTC Medicine $14.93 billion • Vet Care $16.62 billion • Live animal purchases $2.10 billion • Pet Services: grooming & boarding $6.11 billion
What is the most common type of pet in US households?
Dogs are the most common in households at 60.2 million.
How much is the US companion animal industry worth now?
It is projected that people in the USA will spend close to $109.6 billion in 2022
What types of companions are part of the companion animal industry?
Dogs, cats, fish, bird, reptiles, other small animals (guinea pigs, hamsters, rabbits, etc)
How does the ‘humanization’ of animals play a role in the size of the industry?
As animals get more humanized, the more money we're willing to spend on them. For things like clothing, better food, vet care, etc. • Companion animals provide an outlet for expressions of emotion and caregiving – We think of animals with sentiment and affection – We show them compassion, and empathy—and feel they give us the same without judgment – We miss them and grieve for them – We care for them on a daily basis • Owning companion animals also encourages us to socialize with other people – Walking with a dog (or baby) results in more interactions with other people than walking alone – We must go to pet stores, vet clinics, training classes, etc a result of our pets
Why is the companion animal industry so big and keeps growing?
1- Lots of pets = lots of food and supplies to meet basic needs, including health care 2- As the overall economy improves, people have more money to spend on extras 3- Humanization of animals results in spending more money on them (Companion animals are more integrated into the family (no longer just outside dogs or barn cats) 4- Premiumization = more and more high-end, specialty products 5- Recognition of health benefits that having a companion animal brings to humans 6- Human Demographics
What generations play a big role in driving the companion animal industry? (Will the industry continue to grow?)
1. Baby Boomers –Spend lots on pets once human kids leave home –Spending often declines at ~55 years old, but BB spending on pets is peaking between 55-64 –Boomers were the largest segment of pet owners (37%) till 2015 (>health : < supplies) 2. Millennials (Gen Y- Echo-boomer) • The generation of people born during the 1980s and early 1990s. • First generation to grow up thinking of pets more like humans than animals – Largest generation in the U.S. AND the largest pet owner demographic – Starting to have their own disposable income—and many are using to buy and pamper pets • Spent $11 billion on your pets in 2014 • Are more willing to spend money on premium (higher priced) products and services • iGen = born in 1996 or later –Just beginning to enter the work force or have independence in college –Not as much disposable income (yet) - Believed that they will be the largest ones in the next few years
What is the other demographic group in the U.S. that spends a lot of money on their pets?
Why Taxonomy is important?
1- It helps Biologists to identify the millions of species that are on the planet. ▪ Every species is belonging to a certain group; once this group is recognized, this species will be named, fully described, and officially registered in the Catalogue of Life. 2- It clears up any kind of confusion in naming practices of organisms, and keep things simpler for scientists. 3- It helps to group organisms and connect them to each other which facilitates studying or conducting research on them.
Bases of classification; Cellular Level
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Bases of classification; Level of organization
No organization aggregated cells OR organized cells --> tissue --> organ --> system
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Bases of classification; Body Symmetry
1- Asymmetrical body: Sponges 2- Radial Symmetry: when any plane passing through the central axis of the body can divide it into identical halves. 3- Symmetrical: When a longitudinal plane passing through the central axis of the body can divide it into identical right and left halves.
Bases of classification; Body Cavity
Presence or absence of body coelom (cavity) between the body wall, systems, and organs inside the body.
Bases of classification; Body Segmentation
Presence or absence of clear external and internal segmentation of the body e.g. head, neck, chest, abdomen etc.
Bases of classification; Notochord
Presence or absence of Notochord (a cartilaginous skeletal rod supporting the body in all embryonic animals) it is the embryonic form of the vertebral column and spinal cord (+ Chordata).
Seven levels of classification
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
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Binomial Nomenclature
1- Names were based on Latin or Ancient Greek words - scientist everywhere understood these languages. 2- The FIRST word of the Scientific Name is the name of the genus (refers to small group of organisms) to which the organism belongs. 3- The SECOND word of the name is the species name (a Latin description of some important characteristic of the organism). Genus species (italicized)
Organisms Classification
1- Kingdom Bacteria (Prokaryote) 2- Kingdom Archaea (Prokaryote, e.g. Methanobacetria) 3- Kingdom Protozoa (Amoeba, unicellular) 4- Kingdom Chromista (most of the Algae) 5- Kingdom Plantae (land and water plants) 6- Kingdom Fungi (yeast and mushroom) 7- Kingdom Animalia (All animals)
Taxonomy of Companion animals
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General Characters for class Mammalia
1- Body cover; Most of them have skin covered with hair. 2- Respiration; Air-breathing through a highly developed respiratory system 3- Feeding newborns; Mammary glands functional in mothers with young, secrete milk to feed newborns 4- Reproduction; All are viviparous (give birth to a live fetus) 5- Thermoregulation; Homoeothermic - Endothermic mechanism - warm blood animals, the body keeps it is temperature within a definite range. 6- Dentation; Heterodonts – have a variety of specialized teeth (incisors, canines, premolars, and molars) and strong jaws. 7- Musculoskeletal system; All are tetrapod (4 limbs) and a well developed Skeletal system. 8- Digestive and urogenital systems; Well developed and highly specialized digestive and urogenital system.
General Characters for class Reptila (Companion animals)
1- Body cover: Their body mostly covered with thick and tough scales made of a protein called keratin. 2- Respiration; Mostly air breathing through lung (not fully developed as in Mammalia), even the coral sea snake. 3- Reproduction; Mostly Oviparous (lay eggs) with some Viviparous 4- Feeding newborns; Offsprings, can eat directly after being hatched or born, no mammary gland or milk secretion. 5 - Thermoregulation; Poikilotherms – Ectotherms - Cold Blooded animal: animals whose body temperatures vary according to Ambient temperature - They have no internal means of regulating metabolic function nor body temperature. - In cold weather, snakes tend to be sluggish as their metabolisms slow down. 6- Dentation; variable pattern, turtles lack teeth, fanged Snakes, and Constrictor snakes. 7- Musculoskeletal system; Most of them are tetrapod, or derived originally from tetrapod ancestors. 8- Digestive and urogenital system; Cloaca; a single Exit/entrance opening where excretion of both urine and fecal matter, copulation and egg laying or parturition occur.
General Characters for class Avis (Companion animals)
1- Body Cover; Their body totally covered with feathers, essential for thermoregulation, flight, camouflage, and signaling (social and sexual). 2- Respiration; Air breathing through lung (Birds have one of the most complex respiratory systems of all animal groups. - Upon inhalation, 75% of the fresh air bypasses the lungs and flows directly into a posterior air sac which extends from the lungs and. connects with air spaces in the bones (pneumonic bones) and fills them with air. 3- Reproduction; Oviparous (lay hard shelled eggs). 4- Feeding Offsprings, can eat directly after being hatched, no mammary gland or milk secretion, most of them exhibit parental care and feeding. 5- Thermoregulation; Homoeothermic, maintains a stable internal body temperature regardless of external influence. 6- Dentation; Mostly Toothless, and highly modified beaked jaws according to their feeding habitat 7- Musculoskeletal system; Most of them are tetrapod, with extreme modifications of the 2 forelimbs into wings. 8- Digestive and urogenital system; Cloaca; a single Exit/entrance opening where excretion of both urine and fecal matter, copulation and egg laying occur.
General Characters for class Osteo-ichthyes = Fish (Companion animals)
1- Body Cover: Their body totally covered with scales embedded in the dermal layer of skin, and a lot of mucous secreting glands, secrete Slime layer. - A condensed line on both sides of the fish known as the lateral line; is a sense organ used to detect movement and vibration in the surrounding water. 2- Respiration: by gills, covered by a common operculum; respiratory organ for the extraction of oxygen from water and for the excretion of carbon dioxide. - “Swim bladder or gas bladder” often present; is an internal organ that contributes to the ability of a fish to control its buoyancy. 3- Reproduction: Fertilization can be internally or externally, eggs incubation also can be internally or externally with nesting. 4- Feeding Offsprings, can eat directly after being hatched, no mammary gland or milk secretion. 5- Thermoregulation; Poikilotherms: fishes are so sensitive to sudden change in water temperature and might lead to temperature shock and sudden death. 6- Dentation; varies from several shapes, structure and number of teeth to, very tiny teeth or toothless. - Carnivores fishes have teeth that are designed to puncture, hold on to, and cut their prey whereas most fish that eat plants (herbivores) have teeth that are more suited for shredding things such as algae 7- Musculoskeletal system; Fishes are not tetrapod (The very ancient fishes used to be classified as tetrapod), they do not have limbs/ remnant but they do have fins; bony spines or rays protruding from the body with skin covering them and joining them together mostly used for swimming and defense. 8- Digestive and urogenital systems; Cloaca; a single Exit/entrance opening where excretion of both urine and fecal matter, copulation and egg laying = Spawning occur.
Do you think that there are some fish that can breathe air outside water with normal lungs?
Viruses are considered .... why?
Nonliving, so not prokaryotes or eukaryotes
Are all mammals fully covered by hair?
No, several mammals have little to no body hair (extremely large mammals and fast swimming mammals more specifically)
Are all mammals viviparous?
No; platypus, spiny anteaters lay eggs
eggs incubated and hatched inside the female's body
What is crop milk?
Secretion from the GI tract of parent birds (from the crop)
What is mouthbrooding fish?
Fish can lay eggs --> fertilized eggs in mouth Fish can keep larvae in mouth Eggs inside mouth (ovophile or larvophile)
Problems related to breeding immature female
1.) Physical immaturity --> animal has not yet reached full body size yet - They have an incomplete musculoskeletal system, meaning they have a narrow pelvis which can cause dystocia. It will also cause a small- sized/premature fetus bc their body system is not fully developed, they need special care or they might die. - Underdeveloped mammary glands lower the output starvation of offsprings, reduced colostrum --> weak offsprings with reduced immunity - Arrested growth of the female: once pregnancy occurs, all nutrients will be directed or even withdrawn from the body or even withdrawn from the body to supply feti which will in return arrests the development of the female. 2.) Sexual immaturity --> the animal did not reach full reproductive performance. - Irregular estrus cycle (the regular reproductive cycle in females) - Weak ovulation; includes number of ova, and quality of ova. - Lower conception rate (ratio of successful mating that ended with pregnancy) - Incomplete development of reproductive organs; To assure that reproductive organ e.g. uterus, vagina and vulva reached full size; immature or juvenile reproductive organs might lead to bleeding and pain during copulation or parturition, early abortion and dystocia. 3.) Mental Immaturity: the animal did not reach full mental development and can take care of offspring - Maternal rejection ; the highest recorded % of offspring rejection was recorded after the first birth particularly for early bred females (Reject to take care and nurse). - Maternal aggression - Maternal cannibalism (Common in rabbit as well)
Structures & Functions of Female Repro Tract
- Ovaries are the female gonads; they contain the Ova and are responsible for much of the animal's reproductive hormone production. - Oviducts are small ducts that transport the ova from the ovary to the uterus, and where fertilization mostly occur. - Uterine horns join and form the uterine body anterior to the cervix (Remember that anterior means toward the head of the animal) - Cervix is a structure consisting of dense muscular and connective tissue tube that connects the uterus to the vagina; (the firm closure of the cervix after Fertilization is essential for Pregnancy) - Vagina is the female copulatory organ that opens at the external genitalia, or vulva.
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Structures & Functions of Male Repro Tract
- Testicles: Male gonads, Kept outside the body cavity in the scrotum; (must be kept in a lower temperature than body temp.), they are responsible for production of sperms, and secretion of Androgen (Testosterone). - Epididymis: a highly convoluted duct behind the testis, composed of the head body, and tail, the later is connected directly to the ductus deferens which lead to the penile urethra. 1- Store and protect spermatozoa 2- Act as a recycling center for damaged spermatozoa 3- Facilitates functional maturation of spermatozoa - Scrotum and prepuce: Skin pouch and a Skin sheath that enclose testacies and penis (Cremasteric muscle). - Accessory genital glands: (Seminal vesicles - Prostate gland- Bulbourethral glands) 1- Secretes seminal plasma to nourish and activate the spermatozoa 2- Clear the urethral tract prior to ejaculation (optimize pH) 3- Serve as the vehicle of transport of the spermatozoa in male and the female tract
Reproductive Physiology in male
A.) Sperm Pass-way 1- Spermatozoa are produced in testes in the seminiferous tubules; Seminiferous tubules are tightly coiled tubes found in lobules of testes. 2- Sperms are passed into small tubules and collected at the rete testes 3- From rete testes sperms leave the testes by efferent ductules and collected in the head of epididymis. 4- Then sperms pass through the tail of Epididymis to the ductus deference, then passed to the ejaculatory duct which is connected to the urethra. B.) Sperm production; spermatogenesis 1- Spermatocytogenesis; in which the primitive stem cell (Spermatogonia = the precursor cell of sperms) dividing to replace themselves and to produce a population of cells later develop into mature sperm. 2- Spermiogenesis: is the final stage of spermatogenesis, which sees the maturation of spermatids into mature, motile spermatozoa. The spermatid is a more or less circular cell containing a nucleus. 3- Spermiation: is the process by which mature spermatids are released from seminiferous tubule lumen to the ductules prior to their passage to the epididymis.
Physiology of gestation
1- Fertilization; is a cell-cell recognition process that occurs between two distinct cells: a - small asymmetric and motile sperm cell and a large and nonmotile egg. - Eggs: A nonmotile cell contain haploid nucleus, surrounded by a highly protective layer called Zuna pellucida. - Sperm: Small and motile cells composed of 3 parts; 1.) Head: Contains the spermatic haploid nucleus. Overlaying the head is a membrane-bound vesicle, called “acrosome”, it is a lysosomal-like structure that contains hydrolases and protease enzymes 2.) Midpiece: The proximal portion of the tail, contains mitochondria, which produce the ATP necessary for the beating of the tail. 3.) Tail: Contains the flagellar apparatus, which is responsible for motility.
Stages of fertilization
1) Sperm preparation: - Ejaculated sperms are not ready to fertilize an egg when they enter the vagina, they undergo several changes, which are collectively known as Capacitation: The physiological changes of spermatozoa in order to have the ability to penetrate and fertilize an egg, usually occur as a response to the semen being diluted by vaginal secretions. - This process results in: * increasing the spermatic motility and the sperm tail beat more powerfully and regularly * losing of the sperm’s surface antigens (losing the electrical charges responsible for repulsion force). 2) Sperm-egg recognition and binding - Chemoattraction; Simply the egg produce chemical attractants to the sperms then, there are egg binding receptors on sperms and sperm binding receptors on the egg, this initiate a process of attraction and binding between them. - Vaginal and uterine contraction, oviduct cilia , chemoattractant and receptors 3) Sperm-egg fusion. - Acrosome reaction: Sperm- egg binding stimulate lysis of the acrosome membrane and release of the hydrolases and protease enzymes, these enzyme penetrate through the outer layer of egg wall. - Sperm nucleus and other organelles are incorporated into the egg cytoplasm. - The sperm nucleus undergoes a series of changes, result in formation of male pronucleus (that can bind with the egg pronucleus) and forming the diploid nucleus. - Other sperm organelles remain active inside the new diploid cell and participate in the early development. 4) Zygote activation: - Prevention of polyspermy (refers to the fertilization of the egg by more than one sperm, resulting in zygotes with greater than a diploid amount of DNA. this causes early embryonic defects and arrest of development): - Immediately after pronuclei fusion the fertilized ovum produce several enzymes which form a protective layer around the fertilized ovum act as physical, and chemical barriers or even have a spermicidal effect. - Finally the cellular metabolism, protein synthesis and mitotic division are progressively upregulated to initiate zygote cleavage and embryo formation.
diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes; a fertilized ovum
Sperm capacitation
the physiological changes spermatozoa must undergo in order to have the ability to penetrate and fertilize an egg
refers to the fertilization of the egg by more than one sperm, resulting in zygotes with greater than a diploid amount of DNA. this causes early embryonic defects and arrest of development
Different types of estrus cycle
1- Monoestrous; Having only one estrus cycle annually per year e.g. Dogs, wolves, foxes and bears. 2- Polyestrous: having several estrus cycles throughout the year e.g. House Cats, Cows and Pigs. 3- Seasonal polyestrous; having several estrus cycles during particular season = Breeding season. e.g. (Short day Breeders = Winter and fall ); Sheep, Goat and Deer, e.g. (Long day Breeders = Summer and spring); Horses, Hamster and Ferrets.
Different types of ovulation
1- Spontaneous Ovulation: ovulation is spontaneously following hormonal cyclicity of the body e.g. Cows, dogs, Horses 2 - Induced Ovulation: ovulation usually induced by the stimulus produced by coitus e.g. Cats, Rabbit, Ferrets, and Camels
Study Guide for Estrus Cycle
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Stages of Estrus Cycle
1- Proestrus Phase (Preparatory stage – NO sexual reception) 2- Estrus Phase (Ovulation, sexual reception and mating) 3- Metestrus or Diestrus phase (After-mating – NO sexual reception) 4- *Anestrus phase (Sexual Inactivity – NO sexual reception)
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Changes during Estrus Cycle
1- Ovarian changes 2- Uterine changes 3- Physical changes 4- Behavioral changes 5- *Hormonal changes
1- Proestrus Phase
1- Ovarian changes; The first stage of estrus cycle, one or more follicles (contain oocyte or ova) start to grow on ovaries. 2- Uterine changes; Development (proliferation) of the uterine lining; endometrium (ready to copulation, receiving semen and fertilization). 3- Physical changes; Usually accompanied by vaginal secretions (mucous, blood or mixed) and swelling and redness of the vulva. 4- Behavioral changes; Females will show interest in males but will never accept mating.
2- Estrus Phase (Ovulation and sexual reception)
1- Behavioral changes; Females exhibit sexually receptive behavior (“In heat”) and stand to be mounted. 2- Physical changes; valvar swelling and vaginal secretions (mucous only) to facilitate copulation and sperm motility after copulation. 3- Uterine changes; Usually accompanied by uterine and vaginal contraction, to facilitate semen transportation through the female reproductive tract. 4- Ovarian changes; Follicles are mature and ready to ovulate (Mature Follicle; MF, secrets Estrogen). - Ovulation (release of the ova from the ovary to the oviduct for fertilization) usually occur in this stage or slightly after, this period terminates with ovulation.
when a mature ovum (oocyte) is released from the MF on ovary, pushed down the oviduct = fallopian tube, and is made available to be fertilized.
3- Metestrus or Diestrus phase
1- Uterine changes; - Development of the (uterine lining mucosa) endometrium to accommodate embryos in case of pregnancy - Calming; no more vaginal or uterine contraction . 2- Physical changes; NO MORE vaginal secretion and vulvar swelling. 3- Behavioral changes; Females are not receptive to males anymore and might attack the male if tries to mount. 4- Ovarian changes; Remnants of the follicle after ovulation will form a yellow colored structure on the ovaries called: (Corpus Luteum - CL secretes Progesterone) - This period starts by formation of CL and will ends by regression of the CL
4- Anestrus phase
- Period of sexual inactivity or rest between cycles. - Length varies according to several factors include; * Time of the year (seasonality) * Pregnancy * Lactation * Age of the animal - Not in All animals.
Endocrinology of female reproduction
Hypothalamus: is a section of the brain responsible for the production of many of the body's essential hormones. - It secretes several releasing Hs; thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), corticotrophin releasing hormone (CHR), etc. - It also secretes GnRH; Gonadotrophic Releasing H which stimulates Anterior Pituitary gland to Secret: * Gonadotrophic Hs: 1- FSH; Follicle Stimulating H 2- LH; Luteinizing H.
- Responsible for growth and maturation of the Follicle (contains ovum). - Secreted in high level usually during proestrus and early stage of estrus phase, till formation of the MF.
- Responsible for Ovulation and formation of Corpus Luteum. - Secreted in a high level just before ovulation during Estrus phase, and formation of CL during Diestrus.
Mature Follicle is responsible for secreting it (E2) responsible for; All the signs of estrus phase including; * Vaginal discharge * Uterine contraction * Male receptivity
Corpus Luteum
responsible for secreting; Progesterone (P4)
Progesterone (P4)
P4 is responsible for; All signs of Metestrus/anestrus phase including; - Preparation and calming of the uterine wall to receive embryos. - Cessation of male reception
Hormones & their functions chart
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Some animals have one uterus and others might have 2 cervices, do any animals have 2/3 vaginas?
Yes, marsupials do!
What happens to sperm after 24 hours/if an animal doesn't ejaculate?
Sperm will stay/be stored in the tail of the epididymis and if not ejaculated it will be recycled and energy reused in the body. Stored for various amounts of time in different animals, 24-36 hours for dogs and horses, 4-6 hours for cats, elephants 7-10 days.
How much semen does a golden retriever produce?
~5 mL (< .25 mL of this is sperm)
Do birds have testes?
Yes, they are internal. Testes function normally in high body temp and testes are cooled by the pelvic air sac.
What is Nutrition?
- Science of dealing with the utilization of food by the body processes, which transform food into body tissues and energy.
What is a Nutrient?
- Is a component in foods that an organism uses to survive and grow. 1. Water 2. Carbohydrates 3. Fats 4. Protein 5. Minerals 6. Vitamins
1- Water is the major constituent of animal’s body and probably the most important nutrient! - Making up, on average, 75% at birth and 60% in adult life - Lean muscle tissue contains about 75% water, blood contains 70 - 80% water, body fat contains 14% water and bone has 22% water, brain ~60 % water and lungs about 70% water. 2- Most animals can live one to two weeks or longer without food, but can only live a couple of days without water. (There are some exceptions)
Water's Role in the Body
1- Thermoregulation; - Involved in most of the heat loss process; Sweating, Panting (evaporative cooling) from the respiratory system, Urination and avian defecation. 2- Major component of most body fluids; - Digestion; Saliva, gastric juice and intestinal secretions. - Blood; transports nutrients to all body tissues and removes wastes from those tissues. - Cerebrospinal (CS) fluid; protection, nourishment of the CNS, and help in transportation of nerve impulses. - Excretion; urine and fecal matter - Lubrication of joints (part of the Synovial fluid ), part of the eyes lacrimal secretion (prevent eye dryness) and inner ear secretion (help in sound transmission), etc. 3- Required for most of the body metabolic processes; fat, protein and CHO digestion, and all the anabolic processes for tissues build up. 4- Important for Ion balance (Osmotic pressure) across cellular membranes.
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Common Sources of Water
1- Drinking water 2- Water contained in the food 3- Water from metabolic breakdown of fats, proteins and carbohydrates.
Water Deficiency
- Water Deficiency in the body = Dehydration, a loss of 5 to 10% of body water, will result in severe dehydration and cell functions diminish to prolonged dehydration can lead to death - Dehydration might be due to reduction in water input (Always make sure fresh clean water is available to your pet) OR increase water loss.
Body Water loss: Physiological causes
1- Urine is the largest water loss out of the body – about 75 to 85 % of total water loss. 2- Fecal matter is the 2nd largest water loss; Dog and cat poop is about 60% water. 3- Respiration thru the lungs is also a mechanism of water loss from the body. (why not sweating?). This can be a major loss especially during exercise or in hot weather. 4- Lactation is also a major water loss. Most milk is 10 -15% solids and 85 – 90% water.
Body Water loss: Pathological causes
Diarrhea and Vomiting, etc
Signs of Dehydration
Sunken eyes. Dry, pale gums (Capillary refill time). Loss of skin elasticity – (Skin tent test) Weakness, collapse and ultimately death.
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Calculating amount of water needed for an animal
For every kilocalorie (kcal) >>> An animal will require at least 1 ml/cc of H2O.
Carbohydrates, CHO
1- Carbohydrates are molecules composed of Carbon, Oxygen and Hydrogen, they are mainly of vegetable origin, with the exception of blood glucose, glycogen in the muscles and liver, and milk sugar “Lactose”. - The most common carbohydrate is (Glucose = Absorbable form) and it is the second most important nutrient after water (the main source of energy). 2- All animals and humans must maintain a constant level of blood glucose, a sudden change in that level might result in a major health problem or even lead to death. 3- Blood Glucose level in Ruminant is usually lower than mono-gastric animals;
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CHO role in body
1- Glucose is the main source of utilizable energy (the body will convert any substance to glucose, then cells will metabolize glucose to produce energy). - This energy used for all the physiological processes such as respiration, muscle contraction and relaxation, heart rhythm and the regulation of body temperature. 2- Brain Fuel; The brain, neurons and developing red blood cells can only use glucose for energy. - If your intake of carbohydrates is inadequate, your body will draw on glycogen and fat stores to give the brain fuel >> Once the stores fail, the body begins to break down muscle tissue to make glucose in a process called CATABOLISM.
CHO Classification (Chemical)
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CHO Classification (Biological)
1. Absorbable CHO – a form that is immediately useable by the body e.g. Glucose, galactose and Fructose, usually present as a component of more complex carbohydrates which must be degraded by enzymes. 2. Digestible carbohydrate – mainly starch, from plant origin and Glycogen from animal sources>> Broken down by enzymes into absorbable carbohydrates. 3. Fermentable carbohydrate – utilized by bacteria in the gut and may be broken down into a form useable by the body e.g. pectin. 4. Non-fermentable and insoluble carbohydrate (in mono-gastric companion animals) – commonly known as fibers, this category of carbohydrate passes through the body undigested (e.g. lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose) and serves to add bulk to the bowel contents.
Regulation of Glucose in Body
Insulin: - Decrease Blood Glucose Level - Stimulate Glycolysis; Cellular uptake and metabolism of glucose. - Stimulate Glycogenesis in muscle, liver and fat tissue (conversion of glucose into glycogen and stroage). Glucagon - Increase Blood Glucose Level - Stimulate Satiety and hunger center in the brain initiate hunger. - Stimulate Glycogenolysis and Gluconeogenesis from non-CHO source
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Insulin mediated Cellular glucose uptake.
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glucose metabolism to produce energy
Glycogenesis Vs Glycogenolysis
formation of glycogen from sugar.
generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate substrates
A disease in which the body’s ability to produce or respond to the hormone insulin is impaired, resulting in abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and elevated levels of glucose in the blood and urine.
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Essential Amino Acids
Phenylalanine Valine Tryptophan Threonine Isoleucine Methionine Histidine Leucine Lysine
Water Soluble vs Fat Soluble Vitamins
Fat soluble vitamins; * Soluble in fats - A, D, E, K -They are Hydrophobic and lipophilic so they can be stored in liver fats and body fat depots. - If consumed excessively, fat soluble vitamins accumulate in the body and can become toxic whereas excess water soluble vitamins are passed out in the urine !!!hint!!!. Water soluble vitamins; * Soluble in Water - B complex vitamins, C
Function of fats in the Animal/diet
1. Concentrated source of energy (supply energy – about 9.45 kcal/g vs. 4.2 kcal/g for carbohydrate (~2.25 x more energy) 2. Contribute to the Food palatability 3. Influence the texture of the diet and less dusty 4. The main source of Essential fatty acids (linoleic acid (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3)) 5. Carrier for fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, & K) 6. Affect the reproductive ability of the animal 7. Insulation and protection for the animal body
Forms and sources of Fats
- Hard Fats are lipids that are of animal origin, e.g., tallow or lard (melting point >104o F or 40o C). - Oils are lipids that are usually of plant origin, e.g. corn oil or soy bean oil, or from marine animals, Cod liver and fish oil.
Classification of Lipids
1 - Simple Lipids - Triglycerides; the major component of fats and oils, composed of Fatty Acids attached together with Glycerol group. - The major form of fat storage (fatty acid and chemical energy) in Animal’s body. 2 - Complex Lipids A- Phospholipids (fats complexed with a phosphoric acid group) - Components of cell membranes important for firmness - Nervous transmission - Activation of many hormones. B- Glycolipids; (Contain CHO) Components of cell membranes, important for permeability. C- Lipoproteins (Complexes of fat with protein) - Cellular lipoproteins; important for cellular signaling. - Plasma Lipoproteins; (Fat carrier in the blood), since fat is hydrophobic (insoluble in water) proteins binds with triglycerides and cholesterol to transport them in the blood between all the tissues of the body. - Since lipids have a lower density than water (oil floats on the surface), the density of lipoproteins depends on the ratio of lipid to protein. - Lipoproteins are therefore classified according to their density 3- Miscellaneous Lipids - Sterols – a completely different kind of fat, not based on fatty acids. There are three 6 carbon rings and one 5 carbon ring. - Most of these sterol compounds are only soluble in other fats and oils. Common sterols include cholesterol, testosterone, corticosterone, estradiol, progesterone, vitamin D, etc.
Fatty Acids
- Saturated Fatty acids (No double bonds = between carbon atoms) - Palmitic Acid (16C:0=) - Stearic Acid (18C:0=) - Unsaturated ( Double bond = present) - MUFA (Mono-Unsaturated FA; 1 =), - Oleic acid (high in olive oil) - PUFA (Poly-Unsaturated FA; >1=) - Linoleic Acid, Omega=6 - Linolenic Acid, Omega=3 - Arachidonic Acid 20c:
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Macrominerals vs Microminerals
Macrominerals: needed at > 0.01% of body weight. 1. Calcium 2. Phosphorus 3. Potassium 4. Magnesium 5. Sodium 6. Chloride. Microminerals: needed at <0.01% of body weight 1. Iron 2. Iodine 3. Fluorine 4. Zinc 5. Selenium 6. Copper 7. Cobalt 8. Manganese
Essential fatty acids
1. Linoleic (an omega-6 FA) 2. Linolenic (an omega-3 FA) 3. Arachidonic - In most species, but not cats (Cats must have all 3 provided in their diet), some birds and fish, arachidonic acid may be synthesized from linoleic acid. - Present in Vegetable oils, particularly soybean, corn and safflower are good sources.
Importance of (FATS) Essential fatty acids
1- They are a major constituent of the Cholesterol (sterol group) used for; - Building Vitamin D (2, 25 dihydroxycholecalciferol) - Building Steroid hormones (Corticosterone, aldosterone and cortisol from the adrenal gland, estrogen and testosterone from gonads). - Formation of Bile salt which responsible for fat digestion 2- Responsible for firmness (Phospholipid layer) and permeability (of the cell membrane. 3- Arachidonic acid is precursors to prostaglandins, very important element for inflammation and infection control and have a major role in reproduction.
HDL (High Density Lipoproteins; Good Cholesterol)
bind with cholesterol and tend to remove it from the circulation to be metabolized in the liver or used for vitamin and hormones synthesis.
LDL (Low Density Lipoproteins; Bad Cholesterol)
bind with cholesterol and tend to accumulate in the blood circulation and blood vessels walls lead to several diseases, ex. Atherosclerosis (Thickening and narrowing of blood vessels).
Lipid Metabolism inside the body
- Lipogenesis – the synthesis on new fat in the body from excess glucose or amino acids. Deposited as adipose tissue. - Lipolysis – breakdown of fat into fatty acids for use by other tissues of the body.
Proteins: Backgrounds
- Unlike lipids and CHO, the body can not store amino acids (the basic building unit of protein), so it needs a daily supply of amino acids to make new protein. 1. Take away the water and about 75 percent of body weight is protein. 2. They contribute in every single structure of the body; Muscle, bone and teeth, skin, hair, and virtually every other body part or tissue. 3. There are at least 10,000 different proteins in all living organisms bodies.
Importance of Proteins
1- Can be source of energy if needed; (gluconeogenesis; synthesis of glucose form Non-CHO source, i.e. Amino Acids). 2- Serve as the basic element for building body tissues for growth and maintenance. Ex. Build up a matrix of collagen which filled with minerals to provide strength to bones and teeth. Ex. Replaces damaged or sloughed tissues including the skin, hair, nails, and GI tract lining. The highest protein supplement should be given to younger animals to build up tissues during growth, and supplement then decreased with increasing animal’s age. 3- Build up most of the body enzymes required for body metabolism; most of the body enzymes are proteins. 4- Build up some hormones in the body; some Hs are proteins (Insulin). 5- Major constituent of Plasma proteins (Albumin, Globulin and Fibrinogen); - Regulate and maintain the composition of body fluids; prevent severe fluid accumulation in body cavities (Ascites = abdominal cavity) --> think about hepatic failure. - Regulate Acid-Base balance of the blood; maintain regular blood Ph = 7.32 in dogs, and prevent Acidosis and Alkalosis which might be fatal. - Responsible for Oxygen transportation allover the body (Hemoglobin). - Carry lipid, Vitamin and Minerals throughout the body (Lipoproteins; LDL, HDL). - Responsible for formation of Fibrinogen >fibrin (Blood clotting factors). efficient Blood Clotting 6- Formation of Antibodies; A very important component of the immune system responsible for fighting bacteria and viruses.
Structure of Proteins; Amino Acids
- 22 basic building blocks, called Amino Acids, provide the raw material for all proteins in all the living organisms. - Plant can synthesize all of the 22 AA, while most of the animals can only do 10-12 AA. - AA that animals can not synthesize inside the body are called Essential AA, and must be consumed in the diet. - Generally essential AA are very important for protein synthesis inside the body; proteins such as enzymes, hormones, neurotransmitters, blood proteins and tissue proteins can not be synthesized without essential AA.
Methionine and Cysteine
Are Sulfur amino acids that are important for the synthesis of the hair protein, keratin. A deficiency of methionine and cysteine can result in hair loss, slow hair growth and a generally dry and brittle appearance of hair.
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Taurine participate in synthesis of bile salts for fat digestion. It also helps in regulating calcium flow into and out of the cells. It has a role in healthy cardiac function. It is an important Antioxidant highly required for reproduction Taurine deficiency can result in: Feline central retinal degeneration (FCRD) and subsequent blindness Inadequate immune response Poor growth Poor reproductive function including decreased live birth rate and congenital birth defects.
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Phenylalanine & Tyrosine
- Phenylalanine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones and other key metabolites . - Tyrosine is very important for hair and iris pigmentation, precursor for essential hormones such as dopamine, noradrenalin and adrenalin. Deficiency results in neurological dysfunction, uncoordinated gait and hyperactivity, weight loss and reduced food intake, and reddening of black coats.
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Protein Quality
1- Digestibility Depends on protein’s food source Animal proteins are 90-99% absorbed. Plant proteins are 70-90% absorbed. Soy and legumes are 90% absorbed. 2- Amino Acid Composition Depend on the Protein content of essential AA; Proteins that came from animal sources are considered higher quality >>> than those of plant origin due to their content of essential AA and higher palatability and digestibility. 3- Foods that are high in protein include: - Meat and meat by products – eggs – fish - Soy bean meal, canola meal, peanuts and peanut butter, and other legumes.
Vitamin A – Retinol
1. Role in the body - Required for Healthy vision (in particular adaptation to darkness during night vision) – night blindness - Involved in the synthesis of reproductive hs, fetal development and protein synthesis. - Very important for skin Health. 2. Deficiency a.) Xerophthalmia and Night blindness (Vit. A- Rhodopsin cycle) - Xerophthalmia: Abnormal dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea of the eye, with inflammation and ridge formation, typically associated with vitamin A deficiency. b.) Bone abnormalities, retarded growth and organ damage c.) Dryness and thickening of skin and poor hair development d.) Impairment of reproduction and congenital abnormalities - Hydrocephalus is a condition in which excessive fluid is found within and around the brain. The body may form too much fluid or, as occurs in most cases, the fluid that is produced cannot drain from the central nervous system as it normally does. 3. Excess - During pregnancy, may result in Cleft palate is a skeletal disorder occasionally seen in puppies of all breeds. - A cleft palate results when the bones forming the roof of the mouth do not grow normally. This results in an opening in the roof of the mouth that communicates with the nasal cavity.
Vitamin D
1. Role in the body - Vitamin D plays an essential role in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism by increasing intestinal absorption of both minerals, optimizing calcium incorporation into bone and reducing the l loss of calcium and phosphorus in the urine. - Ultraviolet rays (sunlight) convert 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin to cholecalciferol. - Many animals today are confined indoors and no sunlight is available. Glass windows will also prevent UV rays, therefore, Vitamin D3 supplements must be included in the feed. 2. Deficiency - Vitamin D deficiency before maturity, cause rickets (Not very common in dogs and cats) under-mineralization of bone, soft and fragile bone. - Signs include; bone deformities (bowed legs), retarded growth, teeth abnormality, and general muscle weakness, joint and muscle pains, bone fractures. - Vitamin D deficiency in old ages, cause Osteoporosis (Not very common in dogs and cats), calcium withdrawal from bone. - Signs include; Weak, spongy or fenestrated and brittle bone that can be easily broken, joint and muscle pains. 3. Excess - Hypervitaminotic or Vitamin D toxicity; Results in Hypercalcemia which can lead to calcification of various soft tissues, particularly the kidneys, lungs, arterial walls, myocardium and the intestinal tract. - Skeletal abnormalities and eventually renal failure, cardiac upset, muscle tremors and seizures, effects are most pronounced in puppies and kittens .
Vitamin E (Alpha-tocopherol)
1. Role in the body - Vitamin E helps to protect the cell membranes from free radical damage and strengthens the immune system. - Vitamin E (Usually highly associated with Selenium) helps to protect the cell from the action of free radicals; are produced by cells through normal metabolism, are also produced as a result of external factors that affect the body such as exercise, pollution and sunlight. Free radical can contribute to cell death and ageing process. 2. Deficiency - In Dogs and Cats; 'Brown Bowel Syndrome' - Excessive ulceration and hemorrhage from the GIT. - Steatitis or Yellow fat disease in cats; - Feeding diet with high level of poly unsaturated fats and low level of Vitamin E (Tuna and sardine). 2. Deficiency in Birds - Encephalomalacia (crazy chick disease) – twisted neck, prostration, curled toes. - Exudative diathesis – a subdermal accumulation of viscous blue-green colored fluid.
Steatitis: Inflamed body fat
the inflammation may spread to fat located in the body cavities and then to different body organs.
Vitamin K
1. Role in the body - Anti-hemorrhage; necessary for the synthesis of prothrombin, a factor in the blood clotting mechanism. 2. Deficiency - If low or missing, the blood vessels may rupture causing excessive bleeding. - It might be internally; subcutaneously, intramuscularly and internally, or external bleeding upon injury.
Thiamin (Vitamin B1)
1. Role in the body - Essential for healthy functioning of the nervous system, and transmission nerve impulses. - A cofactor for several enzymes necessary for digestion and oxidation-reduction reactions (ex. Krebs cycle). 2. Deficiency - Thiamin deficiency can cause beriberi; nervous manifestation in humans and animals as shown by neurological disorders, muscle weakness, problems with gait and vision, seizures and ultimately death.
Riboflavin (Vit. B2), Niacin (Vit. B3), Pantothenic acid (Vit. B5)
1. Role in the body - Cofactors for several enzymes necessary for metabolism of CHO, Proteins and lipids; oxidation-reduction reactions 2. Deficiency - Riboflavin deficiency * In birds : Neurological problems of legs causing paralysis, and Curled toes * Riboflavin deficiency in the rat. generalized dermatitis and growth failure, with a keratitis of the cornea. After two months of treatment there are no signs of the former ocular and skin lesions. - Niacin deficiency in dogs results in “black-tongue” inflammation of the oral mucosa with progression to ulceration with anorexia, weight loss, and bloody diarrhea. (Similar signs in cat as well) - Pantothenic acid deficiency in animals is very rare, result in general weakness, fatigue (low energy) and may lead to coma and death
Pyridoxine (Vit. B6)
1. Role in the body - Coenzyme it plays multiple roles in different metabolic pathways of CHO, Fats and protein, also important for hemoglobin synthesis 2. Deficiency - Deficiency of B6; anorexia, weight loss, and anemia in puppies, and if left untreated could result in death.
Biotin (Vit. B7)
1. Role in the body - Important for Healthy skin and hair. - Cofactors for several enzymes necessary for metabolism of CHO, Proteins and lipids; oxidation-reduction reactions (ex. Krebs cycle). 2. Deficiency - Dogs fed raw egg white (contain substance that Inhibit Biotin) develop hyperkeratosis and scaling of the skin.
Folic Acid (Vit. B9);
1. Role in the body - Folic acid is essential for fast cell multiplication (e.g. in the fetus) and is involved in the synthesis of essential DNA components. - Also important for growth, muscle formation, blood formation, and feather growth. 2. Deficiency - Results in anemia, poor growth and poor feathering in birds - Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect (a disorder involving incomplete development of the brain, spinal cord, and/or their protective coverings)????? (occurs when pregnant mothers have a deficiency)
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
1. Role in the body - Co Factor for several enzymes, very important for protein and DNA synthesis of RBCs 2. Deficiency - Deficiency results in Megaloblastic anemia (production of immature, large sized RBCs can not perform their function)
Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)
1. Role in the body - Vitamin C is needed for Building up tissues for growth and repairing damaged tissues and healing wounds, and for repairing and maintaining bones and teeth. (It helps the body make collagen, an important protein used to make skin, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels). - Act as Antioxidant as well, so very important for immunity. 2. Deficiency - Scurvy, Signs: * Ruffled fur, Weight loss, Swollen and painful joints and ribs; lameness, poor bone and teeth development. * Nasal and eye discharge, Bleeding gums and hemorrhages under the skin and into the joints and muscles. * Weakness, unwillingness to move, Hopping instead of walking * Tenderness to touch (may cry out in pain if restrained). 3. Common Sources - In all probability vitamin C is not required in the feed of most animals, they can synthesize an adequate amount. - However, humans and guinea pigs cannot synthesis Vitamin C and must consume it in their diet.
Anatomy of Digestive system
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3 main types of food digestion
1- Mechanical Digestion * mouth, stomach, small intestine 2- Enzymatic/ chemical Digestion * mouth, stomach, small intestine 3- Microbial Digestion * large intestine
Intestinal secretion
Breaks down the disaccharides into the monosaccharides: * Secretions: Maltase (just glucose) Sucrase (glucose and fructose) Lactase (glucose and galactose)
- Digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gall bladder. - Bile juice has bile salts such as bilirubin and biliverdin. These break down large fat globules into smaller globules so that the pancreatic enzymes can easily act on them. This process is known as the emulsification of fats.
Pancreatic amylase
completes digestion of carbohydrate, producing glucose. (polysaccharide to disaccharide)
Lipase, phospholipase
breaks down dietary fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol
Summary of Protein Digestion
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Trypsin and chymotrypsin
- Proteolytic, or protein-digesting, enzyme active in the mammalian intestinal tract. - They are degrading smaller proteins into smaller molecules called Polypeptides or peptides.
Carboxypeptidase, aminopeptidase, dipeptidases
Breakdown protein Polypeptides or peptides into Amino Acids.
Pancreatic Secretions
A- Trypsin and chymotrypsin B- Carboxypeptidase, aminopeptidase, dipeptidases C- Pancreatic amylase D- Lipase, phospholipase
Digestion in small intestine
1- Segmentation contraction - Contraction of each segment alternatively result in mixing and fine grinding of the chyme (Partially digested food) Pancreatic secretion Bile secretion Intestinal secretion
Gastric juice
1- Mucous secreting cells- produce mucous. * Protects the stomach mucous membrane from the damage that gastric juices can cause (Gastric juices are highly acidic and, without this mucus, the acid can destroy the cells and tissues in the stomach). * Also, help to mix food particles with digestive enzymes 2- Chief cells- * Produce pepsinogen (inactive form of pepsin, which becomes active in presence of Hcl) responsible for protein digestion. * Secretes Lipase responsible for 10% of fat digestion 3- Parietal cells * Produce Hcl kills most bacteria and other harmful micro-organisms * Denaturants protein (Step in protein digestion) * Activate pepsinogen into pepsin
Digestion in the stomach
1- Storage – Stores (how long?) and sends food to the small intestine 2- Contraction - Help grinding and mixing food particles with gastric juice to convert it into a semi-fluid mass called Chyme.
Chyme or Chymus
the semi-fluid mass of partly digested food that is expelled by the stomach, through the pyloric valve, into the duodenum.
Swallowing of the food particles (Bolus)
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