PY 302 Ch. 1

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124 Terms
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psychological disorder
a psychological dysfunction within an individual associated with distress or impairment in functioning and a response that is not typical or culturally expected
a psychological disorder characterized by marked and persistent fear of an object or situation
abnormal behavior
a psychological dysfunction within an individual that is associated with distress or impairment in functioning and a response that is not typical or culturally expected
psychological dysfunction
a breakdown in cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning
criterion for psychological dysfunction; damage that results in a reduction of strength or quality
atypical or not culturally expected
criterion for psychological dysfunction; deviation from average, not enough to classify as dysfunction, may even be called eccentric or talented
the scientific study of psychological disorders
clinical and counseling psychologists
receive the Ph.D., doctor of philosophy, degree and follow a course of graduate-level study lasting approximately 5 years, which prepares them to conduct research into the causes and treatment of psychological disorders and to diagnose, assess, and treat these disorders
first earn an M.D. degree in medical school and then specialize in psychiatry during residency training that lasts 3 to 4 year
psychiatric social workers
typically earn a master’s degree in social work as they develop expertise in collecting information relevant to the social and family situation of the individual with a psychological disorder
psychiatric nurses
have advanced degrees, such as a master’s or even a Ph.D., and specialize in the care and treatment of patients with psychological disorders, usually in hospitals as part of a treatment team
marriage & family therapists and mental health counselors
typically spend 1 to 2 years earning a master’s degree and are employed to provide clinical services by hospitals or clinics, usually under the supervision of a doctoral-level clinician
mental health professionals that take a scientific approach to their clinical work
presenting problem
term used in hospitals and clinics for most prevalent problem/problems
clinical description
represents the unique combination of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings that make up a specific disorder
refers to both the types of problems or disorders that you would find in a clinic or hospital and to the activities connected with assessment and treatment
how many people in a population have a certain disorder
statistics on how many new cases are diagnosed during a given period
sex ratio
what percentage of males and females have a certain disorder
individual pattern for mental disorders
chronic course
disorder that tend to last a long time or even a lifetime
episodic course
disorder that the individual is likely to recover within a few months only to suffer a recurrence of the disorder at a later time
time-limited course
disorder that will improve without treatment in a relatively short period with little or no risk of recurrence
acute onset
disorder that begins suddenly
insidious onset
disorder that develops gradually over an extended period
anticipated course of a disorder
developmental psychology
study of changes in behavior
developmental psychopathology
study of changes in abnormal behavior
life-span developmental psychology
study of abnormal behavior across the entire age span
the study of origins, has to do with why a disorder begins (what causes it) and includes biological, psychological, and social dimensions
does not necessarily imply the cause
supernatural model
belief that agents outside our bodies and environment influence our behavior, thinking, and emotions (divinities, demons, spirits, or other phenomena such as magnetic fields or the moon or the stars)
soul or psyche
the mind, has been considered separate from the body
biological model
belief that abnormal behavior is a physical disease (body can influence the mind)
psychological model
belief that abnormal behavior is a result of intrapsychic conflict (Freud)
treatment in which various religious rituals were performed in an effort to rid the victim of evil spirits
Salem Witch Trials
resulted in hanging deaths of 20 women, rooted in supernatural model
mass hysteria
a condition in which a large group of people exhibit the same state of violent mental agitation
emotion contagion
the experience of an emotion seems to spread to those around us
mob psychology
popular language term for emotion contagion
term for mentally disordered; Ancient Greeks speculated that the gravitational effects of the moon on bodily fluids might be a possible cause of mental disorders
Hippocratic Corpus
written between 450 and 350 BC; suggested that psychological disorders could be treated like any other disease
humoral theory
Hippocrates assumed that normal brain functioning was related to four bodily fluids or humors: blood, black bile, yellow bile, and phlegm; imbalance of humors caused mental disorder
derived from "black bile," or melancholer; used to describe aspect of depression
describes someone who is ruddy in complexion, presumably from copious blood flowing through the body, and cheerful and optimistic, although insomnia and delirium were thought to be caused by excessive blood in the brain
depressive (depression was thought to be caused by black bile flooding the brain)
(from the humor phlegm) indicates apathy and sluggishness but can also mean being calm under stress
(from yellow bile or choler) is hot tempered
bleeding or bloodletting
a carefully measured amount of blood was removed from the body, often with leeches
hysteria or somatic symptom disorders
the physical symptoms appear to be the result of a medical problem for which no physical cause can be found, such as paralysis and some kinds of blindness; formerly assumed to be only affecting women, presumed from "wandering uterus"
advanced syphilis
a sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacterial microorganism entering the brain, include believing that everyone is plotting against you (delusion of persecution) or that you are God (delusion of grandeur), as well as other bizarre behaviors
psychological disorders characterized in part by beliefs that are not based in reality (delusions), perceptions that are not based in reality (hallucinations), or both—researchers recognized that a subgroup of apparently psychotic patients deteriorated steadily, becoming paralyzed and dying within 5 years of onset
general paresis
other name for psychosis; because it had consistent symptoms (presentation) and a consistent course that resulted in death
John P. Gray
most influential psychologist in the biological tradition; editor of American Journal of Insanity, the precursor of the current American Journal of Psychiatry, the flagship publication of the American Psychiatric Association (APA); outlook was that causes of insanity are always physical
insulin shock therapy
insulin was occasionally given to stimulate appetite in psychotic patients who were not eating, but it also seemed to calm them down
major tranquilizers
minor tranquilizers
psychosocial treatment
focuses not only on psychological factors but also on social and cultural ones
moral therapy
included treating institutionalized patients as normally as possible in a setting that encouraged and reinforced normal social interaction, thus providing them with many opportunities for appropriate social and interpersonal contact
mental hygiene movement
mid-19th-century effort to improve care of the mentally disordered by informing the public of their mistreatment
Dorothea Dix
campaigned endlessly for reform in the treatment of insanity; a schoolteacher who had worked in various institutions, she had firsthand knowledge of the deplorable conditions imposed on patients with insanity, and she made it her life’s work to inform the American public and their leaders of these abuses
emphasizes exploration of, and insight into, unconscious processes and conflicts; based on Sigmund Freud's elaborate theory of the structure of the mind and the role of unconscious processes in determining behavior
explanation of human behavior, including dysfunction, based on principles of learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology; associated with John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov, and B. F. Skinner, which focuses on how learning and adaptation affect the development of psychopathology
Franz Anton Mesmer
suggested to his patients that their problem was caused by an undetectable fluid found in all living organisms called “animal magnetism,” which could become blocked
Jean-Martin Charcot
head of the Salpétrière Hospital in Paris, where Philippe Pinel had introduced psychological treatments several generations earlier; distinguished neurologist, Charcot demonstrated that some techniques of mesmerism were effective with a number of psychological disorders, and he did much to legitimize the fledgling practice of hypnosis
part of the psychic makeup that is outside the awareness of the person
rapid or sudden release of emotional tension thought to be an important factor in psychoanalytic therapy
Josef Breuer
while his patients were in the highly suggestible state of hypnosis, Breuer asked them to describe their problems, conflicts, and fears in as much detail as they could; partnered with Freud
psychoanalytic model
complex and comprehensive theory originally advanced by Sigmund Freud that seeks to account for the development and structure of personality, as well as the origin of abnormal behavior, based primarily on inferred inner entities and forces
unconscious psychical entity present at birth representing basic sexual and aggressive drives; conscience; driven by moral principles
psychical entity responsible for finding realistic and practical ways to satisfy id drives; logical, rational; driven by reality principle
psychical entity representing the internalized moral principles of parents and society; illogical, emotional, irrational; driven by pleasure principle
intrapsychic conflicts
the struggles among the id, ego, and superego
defense mechanism
common patterns of behavior, often adaptive coping styles when they occur in moderation, observed in response to particular situations. In psychoanalysis, these are thought to be unconscious processes originating in the ego
rransfers a feeling about, or a response to, an object that causes discomfort onto another, usually less-threatening, object or person
directs potentially maladaptive feelings or impulses into socially acceptable behavior
refuses to acknowledge some aspect of objective reality or subjective experience that is apparent to others
falsely attributes own unacceptable feelings, impulses, or thoughts to another individual or object
conceals the true motivations for actions, thoughts, or feelings through elaborate reassuring or self-serving but incorrect explanations
reaction formation
substitutes behavior, thoughts, or feelings that are the direct opposite of unacceptable ones
blocks disturbing wishes, thoughts, or experiences from conscious awareness
psychosexual stages of development
the sequence of phases a person passes through during development. Each stage is named for the location on the body where id gratification is maximal at that time
if we did not receive appropriate gratification during a specific stage or if a specific stage left a particularly strong impression
Oedipus complex
all young boys relive this fantasy when genital self-stimulation is accompanied by images of sexual interactions with their mothers
castration anxiety
the fear in young boys that they will be mutilated genitally because of their lust for their mothers
Electra complex
young girls wanting to replace her mother and possess her father
penis envy
central to Electra complex; the girl’s desire for a penis, so as to be more like her father and brothers
Anna Freud
daughter of Sigmund Freud; further developed his concept of defense mechanisms
obsolete psychodynamic term for psychological disorder thought to result from unconscious conflicts and the anxiety they cause
ego psychology
derived from psychoanalysis, this theory emphasizes the role of the ego in development and attributes psychological disorders to failure of the ego to manage impulses and internal conflicts; also known as self-psychology
object relations
modern development in psychodynamic theory involving the study of how children incorporate the memories and values of people who are close and important to them
collective unconscious
accumulated wisdom of a culture collected and remembered across generations, a psychodynamic concept introduced by Carl Jung
free association
psychoanalytic therapy technique intended to explore threatening material repressed into the unconscious; the patient is instructed to say whatever comes to mind without censoring
dream analysis
psychoanalytic therapy method in which dream contents are examined as symbolic of id impulses and intrapsychic conflicts
therapist who practices psychoanalysis after earning either an M.D. or a Ph.D. degree and receiving additional specialized postdoctoral training
psychoanalytic concept suggesting that clients may seek to relate to the therapist as they do to important authority figures, particularly their parents
therapists project some of their own personal issues and feelings, usually positive, onto the patient
psychodynamic psychotherapy
contemporary version of psychoanalysis that still emphasizes unconscious processes and conflicts but is briefer and more focused on specific problems
humanistic psychology
belief that human nature reaches its fullest potential when we contribute to the welfare of other individuals and to society as a whole
process emphasized in humanistic psychology in which people strive to achieve their highest potential against difficult life experiences
hierarchy of needs
beginning with our most basic physical needs for food and sex and ranging upward to our needs for self-actualization, love, and self-esteem; social needs such as friendship fall somewhere between; Maslow hypothesized that we cannot progress up the hierarchy until we have satisfied the needs at lower levels
Abraham Maslow
most systematic in describing the structure of personality
person-centered therapy
therapy method in which the client, rather than the counselor, primarily directs the course of discussion, seeking self-discovery and self-responsibility
unconditional positive regard
acceptance by the counselor of the client’s feelings and actions without judgment or condemnation
behavioral model
explanation of human behavior, including dysfunction, based on principles of learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology
classical conditioning
fundamental learning process first described by Ivan Pavlov; an event that automatically elicits a response is paired with another stimulus event that does not (a neutral stimulus); after repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that by itself can elicit the desired response
unconditioned response (UCR)
natural or unlearned response to this stimulus
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
no conditions present for the response to occur
conditioned response (CR)
a learned response to a stimulus that was previously neutral
conditioned stimulus (CS)
a stimulus that can eventually trigger a conditioned response
learning process in which a response maintained by reinforcement in operant conditioning or pairing in classical conditioning decreases when that reinforcement or pairing is removed; also the procedure of removing that reinforcement or pairing
early, nonscientific approach to the study of psychology involving systematic attempts to report thoughts and feelings that specific stimuli evoked
John B. Watson
considered the founder of behaviorism; Little Albert experiment
Ivan Pavlov
initiated the study of classical conditioning, a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus is paired with a response until it elicits that response
Mary Cover Jones
thought that if fear could be learned or classically conditioned in this way, perhaps it could also be unlearned or extinguished; Little Albert experiment
systematic desensitization
behavioral therapy technique to diminish excessive fears, involving gradual exposure to the feared stimulus paired with a positive coping experience, usually relaxation
behavior therapy
array of therapy methods based on the principles of behavioral and cognitive science, as well as principles of learning as applied to clinical problems. It considers specific behaviors rather than inferred conflicts as legitimate targets for change
BF Skinner
published The Behavior of Organisms, in which he laid out, in a comprehensive manner, the principles of operant conditioning
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior changes as a function of what follows the behavior
Edward L. Thorndike
best known for the law of effect, which states that behavior is either strengthened (likely to be repeated more frequently) or weakened (likely to occur less frequently) depending on the consequences of that behavior
consequences for behavior that strengthen it or increase its frequency; positive reinforcement involves the contingent delivery of a desired consequence; negative reinforcement is the contingent escape from an aversive consequence; unwanted behaviors may result from their reinforcement or the failure to reinforce desired behaviors
the development of a new response by reinforcing successively more similar versions of that response; both desirable and undesirable behaviors may be learned in this manner
Adolf Meyer
often considered the dean of American psychiatry
Sigmund Freud
created the practice of psychoanalysis; elaborate theory of the structure of the mind and the role of unconscious processes in determining behavior