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bio exam 3

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Uric acid
Elevated blood levels of this substance can cause gout (or gouty arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis
An immune system problem may cause this type of arthritis:
Aging, obesity, irritation of the joints, muscle weakness, and wear and abrasion
Identify two risk factors for osteoarthritis
Sprain
forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint that stretches or tears its ligaments but does not dislocate the bones
Strain
stretched or partially torn muscle or muscle and tendon
Plantar joints
permit mainly side-to-side and back-and-forth gliding movements
Hinge joint
movement is primarily flexion or extension in a single plane
Pivot joint
Movement is rotational.
Ellipsoidal or Condyloid joint
movements are flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, and circumduction.
Saddle joint
Movements include flexion and extension, abduction and adduction, and circumduction.
Ball-and-socket joint
This type of joint is the most versatile as it allows movement in any axis. Movement includes flexion and extension, abduction and adduction, rotation, and circumduction.
Rheumatoid arthritis
What type of arthritis is an autoimmune disease?
Gouty arthritis
What type of arthritis is a metabolic disease
Ball-and-socket joint
What type of joint has the widest range of motion
Temporomandibular joint
What is the name and type of joint is between the mandible and mandibular fossa of the temporal bone?
Synovial Fluid in synovial membrane reduces friction by lubricating the joint absorbing shocks supplying oxygen and nutrients to and removing carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes from the chondrocytes within articular cartilage.
Can you think of a body fluid with the consistency of egg white? Also, where do you find this fluid and what purpose does it serve?
The knee
which synovial joint has 13 bursae sacks
‚Äč‚ÄčOsteoarthritis
caused by the breakdown and eventual loss of the cartilage of one or more joints.
Acute gouty arthritis:
caused by a defect in metabolism that results in an overproduction of uric acid or a reduced ability of the kidney to eliminate uric acid.
Rheumatoid arthritis
cause is unknown, infectious agents such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi have long been suspected, none has been proven as the cause
Bursitis
Joint disorder resulting when Lyme's disease or syphillis is untreated
Glenohumeral (shoulder) joint/ ball and socket joint
Type of joint between the head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity
Elbow Joint
The olecranon reduces friction when this joint moves
Knee joint
The prepatella reduces friction when this joint moves
Glenohumeral (Shoulder) Joint
The subacromial reduces friction when this joint moves
Knee joint
This joint contains both a lateral and medial meniscus
Gouty Arthritis
This type of arthritis is the result of EXCESS uric acid in the blood
Suture
This type of fibrous joint unites the bones of the skull
Knee menisci
This joint contains articular discs (menisci) of fibrocartilage:
Synovial joint (The knee joint carries an infrapatellar fat pad)
This joint contains a pad of adipose tissue (fat pad):
Atlanto-axial
Name the PIVOT joint formed by the odontoid process (dens) of the axis and the atlas
Elbow, Interphalangeal joints, and Knee joint
Which of the following joints can experience a hyperextension without injury?
Temporalis
What muscle ELEVATES the mandible
Orbicularis oculi
What muscle is important for closing the eye
Orbicularis oris
What muscle closes and protrudes the lips, as in KISSING
Zygomaticus major
What muscle offers the look of SMILING
‚Äč‚ÄčOccipitofrontalis
What muscle offers the look of SURPRISE
‚Äč‚ÄčTemporalis
What muscle is controlled by the TRIGEMINAL nerve?
Latissimus dorsi
What muscle inserts into the intertubercular sulcus of the humerus
Trapezius
What muscle has an ORIGIN including C7 and T1 - T12?
Biceps femoris
What muscle FLEXES the leg at the knee
Gluteus maximus
What muscle inserts into the ILIOTIBIAL TRACT
Deltoid
What muscle inserts into the DELTOID TUBEROSITY of the humerus
Buccinator
this muscle plays an important role in suckling and whistling
Platysma
this muscle plays an important role in depressing the mandible (OPENING the mouth):
Zygomaticus MINOR
this muscle plays an important role in SNARLING
‚Äč‚ÄčMentalis
this muscle plays an important role in POUTING
Facial (VII) nerve
cranial nerve that controls Buccinator
‚Äč‚ÄčFacial (VII) nerve
cranial nerve that controls Platysma
‚Äč‚ÄčFacial (VII) nerve
cranial nerve that controls Zygomaticus MINOR
‚Äč‚ÄčFacial (VII) nerve
‚Äč‚Äčcranial nerve that controls Mentalis
Latissimus dorsi muscle
muscle sometimes called the "Swimmer's Muscle":
Trapezius
muscle important for shrugging your shoulders:
Gluteus maximus
muscle whose insertion includes the iliotibial tract and gluteal tuberosity:
Splenius capitis
muscle important for rotating the head
Deltoid
muscle whose insertion includes the deltoid tuberosity of the humerus:
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
This organelle within the muscle fiber (cell) stores calcium ions until needed for contraction:
Diaphragm
The origin of this muscle includes the xiphoid process; insertion is the central tendon. Contraction of this muscle leads to increased vertical dimension of thoracic cavity which in turn leads to INSPIRATION (inhalation)
Myasthenia gravis
This autoimmune disease of muscles leads to progressive muscle weakness and ultimate muscle paralysis
Accessory (XI) nerve, C2, and C3.
CRANIAL nerve that controls the muscle Sternocleidomastoid
Mandibular division of trigeminal (V) nerve
CRANIAL nerve that controls the muscle Masseter
Splenius capitis
What muscle letter is responsible for extending and hyper-extending the head
Sternocleidomastoid
What muscle letter is responsible for flexing the head as when one prays
Extension and Flexion
Movements that take place at the elbow
Elevation & Depression Lateral Displacement Slight Rotation Protraction & Retraction
movements take place at the temporomandibular joint
Flexion & Extension Abduction & Adduction Internal rotation & External rotation
These movements take place at the shoulder (Glenohumeral) joint
Arrector pili muscles
This type of muscle controls airway and artery diameter and causes goosebumps
calcium facilitates the interaction between actin and myosin during contractions
Why is calcium so important for muscle contraction?
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Where are calcium ions stored within muscle cells
Hinge Joints
Flexion and extension is the only type of movement performed at which type of joint
Epimysium
What is the name of the connective tissue covering of the entire muscle, including the blood vessels and nerves
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Elevated blood levels of uric acid may lead to which disorder
Inadequate release of calcium ions from the SR Depletion of creatine phosphate Insufficient oxygen
What are three likely contributing causes of muscle fatigue
Slow Oxidative Fibers
Type of skeletal muscle fiber least likely to experience muscle fatigue
Skeletal and Cardiac
Two types of muscle tissue with striations
Slow oxidative (SO) fibers
Type of skeletal muscle fiber containing the greatest number of mitochondria
Fast Glycolytic Fibers
Type of skeletal muscle fiber containing the least number of mitochondria
Fast Glycolytic Fibers
Type of skeletal muscle fiber containing the greatest amount of glycogen
Slow oxidative (SO) fibers
Type of skeletal muscle fiber containing the least amount of glycogen
Fast Glycolytic Fibers
Type of skeletal muscle fiber storing the greatest amount of creatine phosphate
Slow oxidative (SO) fibers
Type of skeletal muscle fiber storing the least amount of creatine phosphate
Slow oxidative (SO) fibers
Type of skeletal muscle fiber containing the greatest amount of myoglobin
Fast Glycolytic Fibers
Type of skeletal muscle fiber containing the least amount of myoglobin
Fast Glycolytic Fibers
Type of skeletal muscle fiber containing the least number of blood capillaries
Slow oxidative (SO) fibers
Type of skeletal muscle fiber containing the greatest number of blood capillaries:
1.Blood vessels 2.Airways 3.Stomach 4.Intestines 5.Urinary bladder 6.Uterus
List six (6) locations in the body where smooth muscle is found:
Muscular dystrophy
Sex-linked genetic disease that causes skeletal muscles to degenerate:
Myasthenia gravis
Autoimmune disease that causes progressive muscle weakness
The cytoplasm of a muscle fiber
What is sarcoplasm
A fluid-filled system of membranous sacs
What is sarcoplasmic reticulum
Phase of an action potential which has changed the membrane potential to a positive value
What happens to the resting membrane potential when depolarization takes place
Repolarization refers to the change in membrane potential that returns it to a negative value
What happens to the resting membrane potential when repolarization takes place?
Elbow and Knee
Flexion and extension is the ONLY type of movement possible at these (pure hinge) joints:
Pivot
Rotation is the ONLY movement produced at this joint
Shoulder Hip Wrist
Identify the joints where movement includes circumduction
Glenohumeral joint
Type of joint between the head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity
Eosinophils
Phagocytic white blood cell that attacks parasitic worms in the body
Polycythemia
The blood tests Hematocrit and Hemoglobin level may indicate if you have this disorder:
Neutrophils (60%-70%) Lymphocytes (20%-25%) Monocytes (3%-8%) Eosinophils (2%-4% Basophils (0.5%-1%)
In the order of greatest to least amount, list the five (5) types of white blood cells (leukocytes)
Histamine
Identify the allergy-related substance released by basophils
Polycythaemia
This condition results in an abnormal INCREASE in the number of erythrocytes and is considered a malignancy
Hemophilia
This is a sex-linked genetic disorder manifested by the inability of blood to clot due to a defective or missing component in the coagulation cascade - the gene is carried by females but almost all afflicted are males:
7.40
The ideal pH for blood
inadequate iron in diet
cause of Iron-deficient Anemia
insufficient red blood cell production due to a deficiency in vitamin B12
cause of Pernicious Anemia
premature destruction of red blood cells
cause of Hemolytic Anemia
insufficient red blood cell production due to damaged bone marrow
cause of Aplastic Anemia
Anemia
Insufficient Red Cell mass. A condition in which the oxygen carrying capacity of blood is reduced due to a decreased number of RBCs or a decreased amount of hemoglobin
Leukemia (acute)
a fast-growing cancer of the white blood cells that is most common in children under ten. ‚Äč‚ÄčCan overrun the body within a few weeks or months
Polycythemia
An abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells - considered a malignancy
Thrombocytopenia
A condition characterized by abnormally low levels of platelets in the blood.
Leukemia (chronic):
Slow-growing and progressively worsens over years. In chronic leukemia, the blood-forming cells eventually mature, or differentiate, but they are not "normal"
Thrombocytosis
An elevated platelet count in blood would put a patient at high risk for:
Macrophages
Monocytes are the parent cell for this immune cell
Erythrocytes
This type of blood cell will survive for up to 120 days in the circulation
Erythroblasts
Name often used for immature red blood cells
Phlebotomy (bloodletting)
"Old fashioned" treatment for Polycythemia
B-type lymphocytes, T-type lymphocytes, Natural killer-type lymphocytes
List the three general types of lymphocytes:
No
Can you (AB positive) donate blood to an individual who is AB negative?
Yes
Can you (O positive) donate blood to an individual who is B positive?
No
Can you (B negative) donate blood to an individual who is A positive?
No
Can you (AB negative) receive blood from an individual who is B positive?
No
Can you (B postive) receive blood from an individual who is AB negative?
A Positive, B Positive ,AB Positive, O Positive
If your blood type is O positive what blood types can you donate blood to?
O Negative, O Positive
If your blood type is O positive what blood types can you receive blood from?
B Positive, AB Positive, AB Negative
If your blood type is B negative what blood types can you donate blood to?
AB Positive, B Positive
If your blood type is B positive what blood types can you donate blood to?
B Negative, B Positive , O Negative, O Positive
If your blood type is B positive what blood types can you receive blood from?
Polycythemia
This blood-based disorder or disease is often initially treated by bleeding the patient (bloodletting):
Thrombocytopenia
A LOW platelet count in blood would put a patient at high risk for which of the following disorders or problems:
Neutrophilia
This PHAGOCYTIC white blood cell (WBC) is the most common WBC in blood
Lymphocytes
This type of white blood cell includes natural killer cells:
100-120 days
Expected lifetime for an erythrocyte in the circulation:
Red blood cells without nuclei
Define what a RETICULOCYTE is:
5 to 9 days
The expected lifetime for a platelet in the circulation:
Anticoagulants
This drug can be used to dissolve a blood clot in an UNBROKEN blood vessel?
Vitamin K
Name a natural substance that will improve or INCREASE the ability of blood to clot?
Basophilia
Name the LEAST common type of white blood cell in blood:
baby will develop Hemolytic disease of the newborn
If the mother has Rh negative blood while the fetus is Rh positive, what is the danger to the fetus?
7.35-7.45
What is the optimal pH (range) of blood?
5.5 liters in each adult male and 4.5 liters in female.
Based on your gender, how much blood should you have in your body?
Sickle cell anemia
an inherited disorder characterized by sickle-shaped red blood cells caused by mutant hemoglobin
polycythemia
What disease is bloodletting still used to treat and how would you recognize it?
thrombosis
clotting in an unbroken blood vessel
embolism
occur when the thrombus (blood clot) becomes a mobile embolus and migrates to another part of the body, interfering with blood circulation and hence impairing organ function downstream of the occlusion
Hemophilia is the disorder in which blood is not able to properly clot and is most likely to occur in males since it is genetic and is in the X chromosome. This means a female can have the hemophilia gene but since females have two X chromosomes the second one acts as a backup, but males only have one.
What is hemophilia and who is most likely to become affected?
Coagulation
also known as clotting, is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.