1066, William the Conqueror vs Harold, King of England. Both were related. Harold may have intentionally let Willaim conquer.
Culmination of British Culture
Anglo-Saxon culture, Norman administrative ability, Norman emphasis on law and order, Norman cultural unity, Anglo-Saxon democratic and artistic tendencies.
Anglo-Saxon Land given to
Followers of Willaim the Conqueror, Anglo-Saxon landholders were wiped out
Inventory of all property in England. Land, cattle, buildings. Started feudalism.
A caste, property, military, religious concept of hierarchy, and social behavior system based on God as the supreme overlord. Knights appointed by overlords, overlords to vassals, vassals to barons, etc. Lowest were serfs and knights.
Chivalry and Courtly Love
System based on behaviors that governed both the knight and gentlewoman. Knights fulfilled a military obligation based on social codes and loyalty. Non-sexual, knight acting for woman would be better and stronger as a soldier. Woman's position became elevated because of Chivalry and romance. Image of Mary for women.
New class in Middle Ages
Merchant class. Because of wool industry expanding and shift from labor to wages. Early Middle Ages was herding sheep, cottage factories made cities grow. Guilds were made to regulate standards.
1348 -1349, came back in 1351. Killed Feudalism because the manor fled to the cities and towns.
Religious war against the followers of Muhammed (Muslims) for the Holy Land (Jerusalem). European failure. Commerical and intellectual broadening, refinement in living, encouraged chivalric duties.
Killing of Thomas a Becket
Henry II stated to rid of the priest, some took it too literally. The status of the King was dropped, opened the door for corruption in the papacy. Church became center of learning and belief. Seen as holy to go to his grave. Part of The Canterbury Tales.
Signing of the Magna Carta
King John, backed by the Church, was forced to sign the basis for English constitutional law. Trial by jury, habeas corpus (illegal detention), and representative government.
Hundred' Years War
1337 - 1453. Fought to eliminate English landholdings in France. English longbows eliminated knights and castles. Created British national consciousness. French victory.
War of the Roses
House of York vs House of Lancaster over English throne. Henry VII united families through marriage. End of the Medieval period.
Folk poetry and drama from common people. Ballads from common people. Miracle plays made by guilds. Morality plays representing virtues. Everyman is good example.
First great figure in English literature
Tales of chivalry with added wonders such as dragons, wizards, etc. King Arthur is most famous.
End of Chivalry and Courtly Love
Sir Lancelot and Queen Guinevere passed non-sexual barrier in Arthur's court.