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84 Terms
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how many people are injured each year in sport and exercise?
25 million
causes of injury
- physical factors - social factors - stress factors - psychological factors
attentional disruption
Stress disrupts an athlete's attention by reducing peripheral attention and causing distraction and task-irrelevant thoughts
increased muscle tension
High stress can cause muscle tension and coordination interference as well as generalized fatigue, muscle inefficiency, reduced flexibility, and motor coordination problems.
Other stress-injury relationship explanations
-Overemphasis on acting tough and a "giving 110%" attitude -Failure to distinguish between normal discomfort and injury pain -"You're injured, you're useless" mentality
3 categories of emotional reactions
1. Injury-relevant information processing 2. Emotional upheaval and reactive behavior 3. Positive outlook, coping
speed and ease with which they progress
what varies widely in a person's typical response to injury?
immediately after injury
what period of time is characterized by the greatest negative emotional reactions?
identity loss
Important part of them is lost therefore effecting their self concept
fear and anxiety
They worry whether they will recover, if re-injury will occur, and whether someone will replace them permanently in the lineup
lack of confidence
Lowered confidence can result in decreased motivation, inferior performance, or additional injury because the athletes overcompensate.
performance decrement
Many athletes who have difficulty lowering expectations after an injury expect to immediately return to a pre-injury level
group processes
Positive forces: group rally each other Negative forces: group loss/disruption
Signs of poor adjustment to injury
-Feelings of anger and confusion -Obsession with when they can return
When abnormal emotional reactions to injuries are identified...
send a referral to a sport psychologist
athletes will not automatically transfer...
psychological skills
3 phases of rehab and recovery
1. injury/illness phase 2. rehab & recovery phase 3. return to full activity phase
specific coping skills
- goal setting - self-talk - imagery - relaxation training
social support
what is necessary for at-risk athletes?
personality traits
What can influence health outcomes?
degree of emotional instability or stability
explanatory style
a person's habitual way of explaining events, typically assessed along three dimensions: internal/external, stable/unstable, and global/specific
dispositional optimism
the belief or expectation that things will work out positively
An unhealthy compulsion to do things perfectly and having extreme high standards
a personality characteristic associated with a lower rate of stress-related illness. high challenge, control, commitment
Implications for neuroticism
- be prepared for emotional reactions and questioning - discuss progress even the smallest of gains - help develop stress management and problem-focused coping
implications for explanatory style
- encourage continued attendance - help develop coping strategies to deal with less isolation and feeling overwhelmed - provide emotional support
implications for dispositional optimism
- give objective evidence about the extent of damage/injury to lessen denial tendencies -help athlete develop cognitive management techniques
implications for perfectionistic
- draw attention to the nature of the demands that are being placed on an impersonal process (therapy) or other people (family) - help shift thinking toward desiring vs demanding perfection
implications for hardiness
- communicate severity of the injury - emphasize active communication - reinforce personal initiative/active involvement
have been identified as a second to only parents as providers of social support
communication barriers
- not listening - depersonalizing the patient - jargon - displaying worry
past research looked at confusion, disagreement, and misunderstanding as issues with rehabilitation
negative emotional response
poor perceptions of progress
positive emotional response
perceptions and progress are congruent
rehab adherence
Positive or negative - self motivation - pain tolerance - health locus of control - ego involvement - trait anxiety
rehab adherence strategies
- practitioners who are caring - assisting in goal setting - offering encouragement to patients - monitoring progress
biopsychosocial model
a model of health that integrates the effects of biological, behavioral, and social factors on health and illness positive and negative
Return to sport stages model
1. initial return 2. recovery confirmation 3. return to physical/technical abilities 4. high intensity training 5. return to competition
implications for athlete stressors
- addressing issues of competence - addressing issues of autonomy - addressing issues of relatedness SDT
the process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal
generally concerned with planning, organizing, scheduling, budgeting, staffing, and recruiting
prescribed leaders
leaders appointed by someone in authority
emergent leaders
leaders who emerge from the group and take charge
trait approach
A leadership approach that attempts to determine the personal characteristics that great leaders share
behavioral approach
A leadership approach that anyone could become a leader by simply learning the behaviors of other effective leaders
situational approach
A leadership perspective that effective leadership depends much more on the characteristics of the situation
relationship-oriented leaders
type of leader that develops interpersonal relationships
task-oriented leaders
type of leader that primarily work to get the task done and meet their objectives
cognitive-mediational model of leadership
According to this model, athletes' perceptions of coach behaviors primarily determine players' reactions and responses to these behaviors.
multidimensional model of sport leadership
According to this model, a leader's effectiveness in sport will vary depending on the characteristics of the athletes, characteristics of the leader, and constraints of the situation
transactional leadership
focuses on reinforcing and punishing followers relative to team tasks and monitoring follower performance
servant leadership
focuses on service to others.
Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS)
measures leadership behaviors
Pressure to win leads to...
more time training and stress
periodized training
deliberate strategy of exposing athletes to high-volume and high-intensity training loads that are followed by a lower training load
A short cycle of training during which athletes expose themselves to excessive training loads that are near maximum capacity
process of overtraining
can result in positive adaptation and improved performance (+ overtraining) OR maladaptation and decreased performance (- overtraining)
overtraining keys
overload, overtrain, overreach
An accumulation of training and/ or non-training stress resulting in a short-term decrement in performance capacity with or without related physiological and psychological signs and symptoms of overtraining in which restoration of performance capacity may take from several days to several weeks.
functional overreaching
positive physiological adaptations and improvements in physical training because a recovery phase has been implemented in the athlete's physical training regimen
non-functional overreaching
when a recovery phase has been neglected or altogether removed from the physical training prescription which produces a negative training effects and an elevated risk for overtraining syndrome to occur
overtrained athlete
- disproportionate exercise intensity - fatigue - poor diet habits - lack of sleep - exaggerated stress reactivity
The physiological state of overtraining in which the athlete has difficulty maintaining standard training regimens and can no longer achieve previous performance results
A psychophysiological response due to frequent but generally ineffective efforts to meet excessive demands involving a psychological, emotional, and sometimes physical withdrawal from an activity in response to excessive stress or dissatisfaction
characteristics of burnout
- exhaustion (physical and emotional) - depersonalization - feelings of low personal accomplishment or self-esteem
models of burnout
1. Cognitive-affective stress model 2. Unidimensional identity development and external control model 3. Commitment and entrapment theory 4. Self-determination theory
cognitive-affective stress model
Stage 1: Situational Demands Stage 2: Cognitive Appraisal Stage 3: Physiological Responses Stage 4: Behavioral Responses
Unidimensional Identity Development and External Control Model
the real cause of burnout deal with faulty identity development and external control of young athletes. - not enough time with peers outside of sport - control and decision making are inhibited
Commitment and Entrapment Theory
Burnout is explained within the context of sport commitment. Burnout occurs when athletes become entrapped in sport and feel they must play even though they lose motivation for participation.
self-determination theory
autonomy, competence, relatedness those who do not have those basic needs are more prone to burnout.
factors leading to burnout
- training at younger ages - training year-round
burnout is a...
unique personal experience
Treating and Preventing Burnout
Set short-term goals for competition and practice. Communicate your feelings to others. Take relaxation (time-out) breaks. Learn self-regulation skills Keep a positive outlook. Manage post competition emotions. Stay in good physical condition. Key: It's not how hard you train
active listening
a process whereby a practitioner tries to understand the underlying meaning of what a client is saying
understanding that is conveyed by a practitioner to a client
health and wellness coaching/counseling should be:
- client centered - support and bolster self-efficacy - facilitates the process by which a person can move toward desired goals
client centered approach
- unconditional positive reagard - respectful relationship - practitioner seeks to enter the world of the client to understand their unique perspective - work together to define the problem and establish goals - each contact will build the therapeutic relationship for health promotion
3 core counseling/coaching skills
1. interest/empathy: mindful listening (soler) 2. establishing rapport: open-ended inquiry 3. active listening: reflective statements
face Squarely, Open posture, Lean towards, good Eye contact, Relaxed or natural behavior
motivational interviewing
exploration of why people aren't active, asks open-eded questions, uses empathetic responses and reflective listening skills, and recognizes that individuals may be resistant -> "change talk"
basics of motivational interviewing
1. expressing empathy 2. developing discrepancy 3. rolling with resistance 4. supporting self-efficacy
stages of change
1. pre-contemplation 2. contemplation 3. preparation 4. action 5. maintenance
methods for evoking Change Talk
- ask evocative questions - use importance ruler - use confidence ruler - explore pros and cons - elaborate - query extremes - look back - look forward - explore values and goals