Lab 10 - Cetartiodactyla and Perrisodactyla

0.0(0) Reviews
Report Flashcard set

Spaced Repetition

Scientifically backed study method

spaced repetition


Review terms and definitions



Study with MC, T/F, and other questions


Practice Test

Take a test on your terms and definitions



42 Terms
😃 Not studied yet (42)
Even-toed ungulates - Paraxonic Unguligrade
Odd-toed ungulates - Mesaxonic Unguligrade
Gut Fermentation
Uses microbial communities to break down plant matter using anaerobic fermentation
Rumination or Foregut Fermentation
- Involves a 4-chambered stomach - Allows the animal to eat plant matter and then regurgitate it and redigest it later (called cud)
Hindgut Fermentation
- Single chambered stomach - Occurs further in the gut, in the large intestine
What family has horns?
Family Bovidae
What family has antlers?
Family Cervidae
- Bony core with keratin sheath - not shed - unbranches - found in both males and females in most species
- shed and regrown each year - made of bone - covered in skin ("velvet") during the growing season - usually branched - almost never on females
What species are antlers found on in females in Cervidae?
What is velvet?
Skin that covers antlers in Cervidae
What group has unbranched antlers?
Suborder Ruminantia
Ruminantia skull traits
- Males frequently have head ornamentation/weaponry
Ruminantia Teeth
- An incisiform lower canine -> 3 incisors and 1 incisiform canine - Large diastema (gap) between incisors/canine and cheek teeth - Selenodont cheek teeth - Upper incisors usually reduced or absent
Ruminantia post-cranial skeleton
- Unguligrade - Paraxonic - Cannon bone
Ruminantia soft tissue
- 4 chambered stomach - foregut fermentation - regurgitation of food (cud)
true antelopes; cattle; oxen; sheep; goats
Bovidae Features
- Horns -> not shed and not forked - No antorbital vacuity (indent below the orbital)
Cervidae Features
- Antlers -> forked and shed
deer: reindeer; moose or elks; muntjacs; roe deer
Odocoileus hemionus
Mule deer - Deep antorbital vacuity (Indent near orbital) - Forked antlers
Odocoileus virginianus
White-tailed deer - shallow antorbital vacuity (indent near orbital) - Single beam antlers with small ofshoots
comprising only the pronghorns
Antilocapra americana
Pronghorn - pronghorns -> forked and only the outer sheath is shed - Neither horns nor antlers - fast
Order Perissodactyla
Odd-toed ungulates
nonruminant ungulates: horses; tapirs; rhinoceros; extinct forms
Perissodactyla - Skull
- Elongated rostrum - Lacrimal bone has a process that projects into the orbit
Perissodactyla Teeth
- Lophodont cheek teeth - Large diastema between incisors/canines and cheek teeth - Upper and lower incisors present in some, missing in others
Perissodactyla lacking incisors
Perissodactyla that has incisors
Equidae and Tapridae
Perissodactyla Postcranial Skeleton
- Mesaxonic -No baculum
Perissodactyla Soft Tissue
- Simple stomach - Hindgut fermentation in the enlarged cecum - No gall bladder - Testes scrotal or inguinal - Bicornuate uterus
horses; asses; zebras; extinct animals
Equidae - Features
- Males have canine - Upper incisors - Huge diastema
A genetically distinct lineage of animals that have developed adaptations to live in human care
A lineage of animals that has not adapted to human care; compatibility with humans has not been a significant selective pressure
A wild animal that has become accustomed to humans and has a reduced fear response
A domestic animal that has lived away from humans and is now fearful of humans
Refers to species + genetics
Domestic and Wild
Refers to populations/individuals + behavior
Tame and feral
Why are Ruminantia more successful in grasslands than Perissodactyla?
- Better adapted to feeding on grasses because of rumination/foregut fermentation - Better ornamation for defense - able to chew and digest later (digest on the move)