Viking test

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- Came from Scandinavia which in modern day in Denmark, Norway or Sweden - Also known as Northman or Norse between 9th and 11th centuries, their ferocious attacks stroke fear into people around Europe
What evidence exists about Vikings?
- Early written records of Viking raids - Did not read/write much until Christianity appeared - Viking writing is called runes which was inscribed on rocks - By the end of Viking age stories about them appeared in writing which is known as sagas
Archaeological Discoveries
- Standing Stone: Some were carved with runes, signs and images and the outline of a boat - Viking burial: remains, treasure, boats and grave goods - Remain of settlements
Viking geography
- Extensive areas of mountains and forests - lakes and fjords(long narrow intelts of sea between steep cliffs) - large groups of islands and expanses of outlines - Moraines( rocks deposited by glaciers) - areas of flat low-lying land (in Denmark)
- Days were shorter in winter and 20 hours of sunlight in summer - Gulf stream helps keep temperatures mild and prevents harbours from freezing in winter
Viking Homelands
- were in Northen Europe and Scandinavia - Natural features of Scandinavia helped Viking society - Big distance from central Europe helped them not become influenced - AD 790 was beginning of Viking age - Vikings travel on boat because many islands inland was densely packed with forests - Made up of different Kingdoms
Rulers and wealthy members of the community. The title Konungre (king) was the title given to the chief Jarl
Middle class and made-up majority of the population. They could be, fishermen, shipbuilders, weavers etc. Karls were Vikings that took part in raids.
They were slaves who had little rights who were captured in raids. If they did not obey the law, they would be beaten or killed.
Everyday life Housing
- Viking houses have camouflage for protection from invaders - There are no windows or chimneys because it would get rid of the heat - There is a fire in the middle to produce heat evenly throughout the house - There is smoke all over the house to keep the humidity and is there because there are no windows
is fossilized poo. is direct evidence of another species, it shows whether if it is an omnivore, carnivore or herbivore. Vikings had a balanced diet but with lots of meat.
Government (the thing)
- legal system kept peace, importance was placed in soicetal norms or saagas - Memorise the laws and guilty can lessen sentence if they did not remember - killing people in daytime is not murder - Announce the person you kill to get no sentance - take away weapons for no fighting
If a man was killed family avenges his death
settled arguments. Defeated when blood touched the ground
Pay it for dispute. Paid in front of the public
Serious crime they live in the wilderness
one-eyed ruler Asguard known as Alfather. God of war, wisdom, poetry and has powerful magic
Wife of Odin. Goddess of women, the home, spring and immortal youth.
Son Odin. God of thunder, lighting, stroms, oak trees, fertility and hunting. Also helps saliors and farmers
God of mischief and trickery
Frey and Frega
Vanir Gods, twin sister and brother. Gods of fertility, love, harvest, prosperity and the reproduction of ancestors.
Viking Religion
- Vikings made human sacrifices to appeal the gods. The sacrifices were war prisoners. - Asguard is filled halls and places. Valhalla which is the hall of the bravest slain heroes. - Slain warriors are brought from the battlefield to Valhalla on a pangasius with Valkyries - You train in Valhalla to get ready to fight in Ragnarök
Burial Customs
- Old people believed that there was a place in Norse myth called Valhalla where dead heroes have banquets and feasts - Valhalla was in the palace of the greatest god Odin - only way to go to Valhalla is to die in battle. After death they would be burned with their belongings - Dead body of a Viking chief would be put aboard his boat which would be buried or burned - Life expectancy was low so believed in the afterlife - Ancestors would care for them - 7 days after someone died their family would have a feats - Cremation because believed the smoke would take you to Valhalla
Viking Writing and Literature
- Fathork is the runic alphabet called for the first 6 letters in the runic row - Originally had 24 letters but in 9th century it was simplified - Modern people would think of G as uppercase, but Viking can think of it in different ways - Runes are carved graffiti-like writing onto historical buildings
-- The stories were shared verbally and were sometimes complicated narritives -Vikings were civilized and took interest in arts - Favourite arts are myths, heroic legends, folk tales, family and local history
Viking Longships
- Helped conquer lands and originally made from canoes - It inspired from Roman ships but made them better - After Rome got defeated, Viking had less enemy’s and upgraded their boats to make it stronger, easier and cheaper to build
Design of the longship
- Made them lighter but strong so they can carry them onto land - Sails made with dyed cotton with blood and coated with animal fat to make it water resistant - Front of the longship had a dragon head to strike fear into their enemies
Raid on Lindisfarne
- It is the fist major Viking attack on Britan and Ireland - Raided and isolated but significant monastery - Attacked a holy place which shocked Christians and provoked fear in people - They killed the monks and took their treasure - They attacked monasteries because it was a place with lots of treasure with little security
Viking Weapons
- Spears had a slim iron blade an can catch spears in mid air - Used a v-shape formation to quickly kill their enemies - Iron battle axe can cut through iron - Raids took place a dawn to their victims could not escape
Out of control with anger or excitement; wild or frenzied.
Viking Conquest and their impact
- took pleasure humiliating the Christians - Within 30 years of Viking arrival they controlled Northern and Eastern Europe - To maintain peace English had to pay taxes called Danegeld - They learnt Christian festivals so they can do raids on those dates
Dane law
It is a part of England in which the laws of the Danes held sway and dominated those of the Angelo Saxons
Viking age ended because
- The raids slowly started to stop - Viking raids less effective European armies well-trained and defences strengthened - Less people able to go raiding - Against Christian morals Because of the fewer raids the became Danes, Swedes and Norwegians etc.