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A body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of top leaders of the executive branch
In science and philosophy, a ________ is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.
A legislative body of government, generally a modern _______has three functions: representing the electorate, making laws, and overseeing the government via hearings and inquiries.
is both the art and science of government actions that create policies or laws that affect citizens like us.
meanwhile, focuses on the actions and activities by which the government directly influences our lives.
is commonly defined as the process that determines the distribution of power and resources. It also refers to the theory and practice of how people influence others in making decisions and carrying out projects or programs. studies the allocation and transfer of power in decision making; the roles and systems of governance including governments and international organizations; political behavior and public policies.
is a branch of the social sciences that deals with the study of politics. It deals with systems of government and the analysis of political activity, political behavior, and political theories and practices.
Political science
People who devote their academic careers to the study of Political Science They are engaged in analyzing the relationships underlying political events and conditions. Some political scientists seek to advance normative theses, or ideal descriptions of political situations, in their analysis of politics. Others, meanwhile, propose positive theses, which describe political situations as they are, as well as specific policy recommendations.
Political Scientist
is concerned with the study of the ideas and contributions of classical thinkers such as Chanakya, Aristotle, Niccolò Machiavelli, Cicero, Plato and many others.
Political theory
compares and analyzes the various types of constitutions, political actors, legislature, and associated fields among countries, as well as within a single country over a period of time.
Comparative politics
n is the study of the implementation of government policy and public service.
Public administration
deals with the political-economic interaction between nation-states as well as intergovernmental and transnational organizations.
International relations
is a field of law that studies the relationship between the government and citizens.
Public law
is the branch of political science that uses quantitative methods to describe and define political phenomena
Political methodology
is defined as an organized political community living under a government. It is composed of the following elements: population, territory, government, and sovereignty.
refers to the people that compose the state, while territory refers to the place where the people that compose the state are located, and it includes the land, natural resources and air space located within it.
is the system that administers or controls the state and is the instrument through which the will of the state is made known and implemented.
refers to the ability of the state to govern itself without outside influence or interference.
is the right of the government to exercise power and authority, and it also refers to the recognition given to a state by foreign governments and international organizations.
refers to all actions and activities related to governing. It is defined by the interaction and decision-making among policymakers, public officials, and citizens involved in addressing collective problems.
is a set of ideas and beliefs that define the views and actions of individuals, groups, and institutions. Political ideology, meanwhile, refers to the principles and theories that the government follows or carries out.
was defined by a behavioral revolution that stressed the systematic and rigorous scientific study of individual and group behavior.
Political Science in the 1950 and 1960s
refers to a government ruled by a single person. The sole ruler in a monarchy is called a monarch but may be known by various terms such as king, sultan, and prince. A monarchy whose rule is defined and limited by a constitution is called a constitutional monarchy.
refers to the rule by a small group of people.
Oligarchy or Aristocracy
based on the ancient Athenian form of government, refers to the rule of the people, who directly participate in all government activities.
Direct democracy
recognizes the president as the highest official and head of the executive branch. Presidential governments have legislatures which are organized based on a congressional system.
Presidential system
is characterized by a close relationship between the executive and legislative branches
Parliamentary system
as the name suggests, is a combination of the two. In this system, the president is elected by the citizens
presidential-parliamentary system
is composed of individual states with their own democratic governments that come together as a federation.
Federal government
is a more or less coherent set of ideas that provides the basis for organized political action, whether this is intended to preserve, modify, or overthrow the existing system of power
is a comprehensive belief system that allows us to describe, understand, and interpret the world.
is our point of view regarding political life.
Political Ideology
- It is an ideology that emphasizes individual freedom and participation. It views that human beings must be given freedom to choose their leaders and government officials.
The ideology of socialism is close to the utopia of communism. As Karl Marx has analyzed, socialism is the stage before the communism. This will happen when the proletariat has been successful at overthrowing the bourgeoisie.
- Considered to as one of the most extreme, left-wing political ideology. To define anarchy, it is a situation wherein there is no central authority to regulate the behavior of society.
- It focuses on the idea that the status quo or current situation is the best one. Hence, it values traditions and customs that a state has. For conservatives, change is not good.
It refers to the belief system where people believe that they belong to one nation or people. It encourages a kind of ethnocentric behavior by the state and society.
This political ideology became famous during the Second World War. It was Benito Mussollini who made this ideology popular. This is also the same as the ideology of Adolf Hitler (NAZISM). Tagged as the perversion of nationalism because this is the result of ubernationalism or over-nationalism
Why is Ideology Important?
A. INDIVIDUAL LEVEL Ideology is important for an individual person for the following reasons:It serves as a guiding principle for the individual. It allows people to understand the world better in accordance with the tenets of the ideology. It can provide a clear understanding of how one should act in a certain situation B. GROUP LEVEL Ideology can be considered to be more important in the context of groups especially in the case of Political parties. The following are the reason why ideology is important for groups: it serves as a guiding principle of a specific group. It is the “glue” that makes the group whole. An ideology can become the uniting factor of a specific group. For political parties, ideology serves as the foundation of the party. When a member of a specific political party wins, the policy actions that this person will implement or make shall be based on the party’s ideology. For civil society groups, ideology serves as their basis for social action. C.STATE LEVEL State is usually composed of a variety of different ideologies. In fact, the state can serve as the arena wherein different ideologies compete. The following are the reason why ideology is important for groups: An ideology can serve as a guide for its political structures and actions. The ideology of the state can also serve as guide for the behavior of states in relation to other states.
-When we consider the government as a formal, structured entity through which the state exercises its will, it is understood to be formed according to what is prescribed or mandated by the constitution, organic laws, or traditional customs of a state.
is a set of primary principles and laws that defines what government the people intend to establish. It guides the government as it rules the state.
which is politics that is primarily driven by the current needs, circumstances, or the prevailing reality in the state, instead of political ideals and moral and ethical standards. Other perspectives that offer descriptions regarding real-life politics include political realism, which believes that politics is defined by conflicting interests among individuals and groups as they compete for power in government and society.
meanwhile, is a perspective which believes that societies, governments, and states are all linked together through economic and political activities.
Complex interdependence
- on the other hand, believes that inequality is a reality. However, it also stresses that it is the role of the government to address inequality and other social issues, and promote human dignity, justice, equality, and adherence to the law. These three views enable us to evaluate more critically the various activities and structures that define our government
Global justice
generally defined as the ability of a person to carry out his or her will. This concept is particularly significant in the study of social relationships since society is composed of individuals who exercise varied degrees of power.
- based on a person's ability to compel other people through threats, punishment, and force.
Coercive power
based on the ability to give rewards and benefits.
Reward power
- relies on the knowledge and skills of the individual.
Expert power
based on a person's position, role, and duties in a group.
Legitimate power
based on an individual's personality and ability to attract followers.
Referent power
a German sociologist and philosopher, proposed a classification of power based on different types of authority.
Max Weber
- is based on the personal qualities of the individual who wields power.
rooted in traditional values and existing social ties and institutions. An example of people who wield traditional power are monarchs and members of royal families.
- based on a system of laws and regulations, and an established bureaucracy. A person is able to exercise power because he or she has been empowered by law.
This refers to the ability to entice or convince through persuasion and other non-coercive means. Influence is considered to have a broader scope compared to power and is more democratic in nature. Power also plays an important role in leadership. Leaders exercise various forms of power in order to guide people in an organization and lead them in the conduct of various tasks.
s understood to refer to sovereignty which is the power of the government to perform its functions and conduct its affairs without interference from outside forces.
Political power
however, redefined sovereignty in the context of the "social contract." Social philosophers of the Enlightenment advanced the idea that sovereignty resides in the individuals that compose society. Citizens in a democratic society express their sovereignty through various means. The ancient Greeks directly exercised sovereignty through participation in a direct democracy.
The Age of Enlightenment
also, become the means by which citizens are able to exercise sovereignty in a democratic society. Authority within a political context is closely tied to the concept of legitimacy, which is the acceptance or recognition of the right to exercise power.
is generally based on existing laws, customs, and traditions that are prevalent in a certain society. Whatever the form of government that is implemented in a state, democracy assumes that the elected representatives in the government and the appointed officials borrow power from the sovereign people. The exercise of political power, therefore, is subject to limitations.
states consider the monarch as the legitimate ruler and head of government who exercises most powers of government.
on the other hand, set limits on the authority of the monarch
recognize the monarch as a legitimate ruler, but his or her role is limited to being a "head of state" or a symbolic representative of the nation with little or no actual power in government.
is expressed by the government as a form of "national power" that is composed of various resources and instrumentalities such as the economy, population, and the military.
gives the government inherent powers that it can enact in pursuit of national goals and objectives.
The constitution
refers to the ability of the state to use the police force to ensure law and order in society.
Police power
is the power of the government to acquire private property for public use
Eminent domain
allows the government to impose and collect taxes from its citizens. These powers enable the government to undertake its activities as well as ensure the safety of citizens.
The power of taxation
refers to the capability of a state to wage war against another state and is evident in resources such as military troops and weapons.
Military power
refers to the use of economic resources and finances, and the ability of states to influence other nations by denying or giving them access to certain resources.
Economic power
refers to the ability of a state to use its image or reputation in influencing other countries. This power requires the wise use of diplomacy, propaganda, and mass media to successfully
Psychological power
enumerates the various political, social, and economic rights that citizens enjoy. The concept of citizenship has also influenced views on the powers wielded by citizens. The first concept of citizenship that took shape in the 18th century was civil citizenship, which focused on individual freedoms and rights.
The Bill of Rights (Article Ill of the 1987 Philippine Constitution)
emerged in the 19th century and emphasized participation and exercise of political power by citizens. The most recent concept of citizenship which emerged in the 20th century was social citizenship. This focused on economic, cultural and social well-being and set standards that must be enjoyed. The state has instituted formal means by which citizens are able to directly participate in government. These include suffrage, referendum, plebiscite, and initiatives.
Political citizenship
is the power of citizens that enables them to vote in public elections and also run for public office. During elections, people exercise their power to choose public officials by casting their ballots.
is similar to an election but instead of electing officials, citizens vote for or against a proposal or law. These may include approval of certain local laws or laws passed by Congress.
A referendum
refers to the process by which citizens approve of proposed changes to the constitution
A plebiscite
is a process by which citizens directly propose laws or amendments to the Constitution.
refers to the acknowledgement of responsibility for an action and its consequences. Public officials are expected to uphold various responsibilities in exercising their authority. They have legal responsibilities, which refer to a set of obligations outlined by law, and moral responsibilities, which refers to doing actions that are morally and socially acceptable and deserving of praise
are significant concepts in governance. Elected public officials are expected to perform the obligations of the offices they occupy. Local officials are responsible for maintaining law and order and promoting the interests of the people within their respective jurisdictions
Responsibility and accountability
refers to the use of authorized power for illegal acts or stepping beyond the bounds of authorized action. The use of excessive force by police in arresting a Suspect may be considered an abuse of authority.
Abuse of authority
is the willful disregard for the rules or proper procedure. This can be seen in instances where public officials ignore protocols or standard procedures in hiring employees or procuring materials.
Abuse of discretion
pertains to misconduct in office, where an official performs unlawful actions while in office.The most evident example of abuse of power in government is corruption, which is the use of authority or influence for private interest. Corruption is seen in various acts or activities such as patronage, nepotism, bribery, and influence peddling.
Abuse of power
is a form of political corruption where an official uses public funds for his or her personal gain.
the means by which public officials are to be held accountable in the conduct of their duties
Article XI of the 1987 Constitution
is empowered to investigate cases of alleged abuse, suspend officials under investigation, and recommend cases for prosecution after due investigation. The country's anti-graft court, the Sandiganbayan, is empowered to hear and decide on cases involving graft and corruption and abuse of power by public officials
was originally established to recover the illgotten wealth of former President Ferdinand E. Marcos, his family members, relatives, and business associates. The commission is also tasked with investigating cases of graft and corruption and formulating safeguards to ensure that corrupt practices in government are prevented.
The Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG)
is empowered to investigate cases of violations of civil and political rights and to look into cases of police and military abuse, extrajudicial killings, enforced disappearances, and abuse of prisoners or persons held in jails.
The Commission on Human Rights
is tasked with reviewing expenditures of government offices and agencies to ensure that public funds are used properly. It also has the power to disallow improper expenditures or use of government properties
The Commission on Audit
The Philippine Congress has also instituted a Senate Committee on Accountability of Public Officers and Investigations, also known as the ____________ to investigate alleged wrongdoings of government, its officials, and agencies for the purpose of drafting new laws or amending existing laws to address the problem of abuse and corruption in government.
"Blue Ribbon Committee"
also states that all public officials and employees must issue a statement of assets, liabilities, and net worth (SALN).
Article XI of the Constitution
is also an important institution that ensures the timely discussion of events and issues that are significant to the government. Many cases of government corruption and abuse are often uncovered by the media and it is through their efforts and coordination with the government that many cases of government misconduct are addressed.
The media
also known as the Malolos Constitution was the basic law of the First Philippine Republic. It was also the first republican constitution among Asian countries. It was drafted by the committee headed by Felipe Calderon, Cayetano Arellano, and representatives of the Filipino people.
The Political Constitution of 1899